JS Miller, A Kamath'11, BC Husband, RA Levin

ANNALS OF BOTANY: VOLUME 117, 307-317, 2016
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Polyploidy has important effects on plant reproductive systems and previously has been implicated in the evolution of dimorphic reproductive strategies. 

We document the perfect association of tetraploidy with gender dimorphism (or diploidy with cosexuality) across 36 populations spanning the geographic range of Lycium californicum. Miller Picture 2.jpg

Molecular sequence data strongly support the monophyly of Lycium californicum and that cosexuality and diploidy are ancestral traits.

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Character mapping suggests that tetraploidy & separate sexes have arisen twice independently.

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