- Introduction
- About Amherst College
- Admission & Financial Aid
- Regulations & Requirements
- Amherst College Courses
- Five College Programs & Certificates
- Honors & Fellowships

### Introduction

#### Introduction

Back## Mathematics and Statistics

Professors R. Benedetto, Call, Folsom, Horton‡, and Leise; Associate Professors Ching (Chair) and Wagaman; Assistant Professors Alvarado*, Bailey, Contreras*, Correia*, Culiuc‡, Daniels, Liao, Pflueger†, and Yacoubou Djima*; Senior Lecturer D. Benedetto; Lecturer Donges and Zhang; Visiting Assistant Professors Güntürkün, Matheson, McShane, Moore, Moreno, Rasheed; Mathematics Associate Allison Tanguay.

The Department offers the major in Mathematics and the major in Statistics, as well as courses meeting a wide variety of interests in these fields. Non-majors who seek introductory courses are advised to consider MATH 105, 111, 140, and 220 and STAT 111, none of which require a background beyond high school mathematics.

**Mathematics**

*Major Program*. Mathematics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the mathematics major: MATH 111, 121, 211, 271/2, 350, or 355 (exceptions by petition to the department). Along with the required courses, a major must complete three elective courses in Mathematics numbered 135 or higher. For majors declared after May 17, 2017, at least two of these electives must be numbered 200 or higher. In addition, a major must complete two other courses, each of which is either an elective course in Mathematics numbered between 135 and 490 or a course from outside Mathematics, but in a related field, chosen from among COSC 201 or 211, 301 or 311, and 401; ECON 300, 301, 361, and 420; PHIL 350; any Physics course numbered 116 or higher (excluding PHYS 227); any Astronomy course numbered 226 or higher; and any Statistics course numbered 200 or higher. Statistics courses cross-listed with Mathematics count as Mathematics electives. The additional requirement of two courses can be satisfied by taking two math electives, one math elective and one related-fields course, or two related-fields courses. Requests for alternative courses must be approved in writing by the chair of the Department in consultation with the Mathematics faculty within the Department. Honors students may petition the department to count one math thesis course as an elective toward the major.

For the Spring 2020 semester only, Mathematics and Statistics students may apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any course taken in Spring 2020 required for the Math or Stat majors (including core courses).

For the 2020-21 academic year only, Mathematics and Statistics students may apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any course taken in 2020-21 required for the Math or Stat majors (including core courses) with the following restrictions: no more than one Pass grade may be applied to the Math or Stat major per term (Fall 20, January 21, Spring 21), and at most two total Pass grades from Fall 20, January 21, or Spring 21, can be applied to the Math or Stat major.

Students who have placed out of certain courses, such as calculus, as indicated by a strong performance on an Advanced Placement Exam or other evidence approved by the department, such as a competency exam are excused from taking those courses. Students who place out of MATH 111, 121 or 211 do not need to replace these courses. Students who place out of MATH 271, 272, 350, or 355 exam must replace each such course with an additional Mathematics course numbered 135 or higher.

A student considering a major in Mathematics should consult with a member of the Department as soon as possible, preferably during the first year. This will facilitate the arrangement of a program best suited to the student’s ability and interests. Students should also be aware that there is no single path through the major; courses do not have to be taken in numerical order (except where required by prerequisites).

All students majoring in Mathematics are encouraged to include in their program courses that include concepts and methods from data analysis, mathematical modeling, and computation (e.g., MATH 135/STAT 135, MATH 140, MATH 284, MATH 360/STAT 360, or COSC 111). Students majoring in Mathematics are expected to attend all Mathematics colloquia during their junior and senior years.

For a student considering graduate study, the Departmental Honors program is strongly recommended. Such a student is advised to take the Graduate Record Examination early in the senior year. It is also desirable to have a reading knowledge of a foreign language, usually French, German, or Russian.

*Double Majors in Mathematics and Statistics. *Students electing a double major in Mathematics and Statistics may count MATH 111, 121, 211, and MATH 271 or 272 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Statistics major may be counted towards the Mathematics major.

*Comprehensive Examination*. A comprehensive examination will be given near the beginning of the spring semester of the senior year. (Those who will complete their studies in the fall semester may elect instead to take the comprehensive examination at the beginning of that semester.) The examination covers MATH 211, MATH 271 or 272, and a choice of MATH 350 or 355. More information about the comprehensive examination, including regulations and study materials, can be found on the Department website.

*Honors Program in Mathematics*. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a qualifying examination given at the beginning of the spring semester of their junior year and the acceptance of a thesis proposal. (Those for whom the second semester of the junior year occurs in the fall may elect instead to take the qualifying examination at the beginning of that semester.) If a student is accepted to the Honors Program, they will finalize a topic in consultation with Mathematics faculty. After intensive study of this topic, the candidate will write a report in the form of a thesis which should be original in its presentation of material, if not in content. In addition, the candidate will report to the departmental colloquium on their thesis work during the senior year. Honors candidates are also required to complete MATH 345 and at least one Mathematics course numbered 400 to 489.

**Statistics**

*Major Program.* The minimum requirements for the Statistics major include MATH 111, and 121; STAT 111 or STAT 135 (STAT 135 strongly recommended); STAT 230, 231, 360, 370, and 495; two courses in Computer Science at the level of 111 or higher (typically COSC 111 and COSC 112); and two additional elective courses in Statistics at the 200 level or higher (one elective course in Statistics at the 200 level or higher is required for the class of 2021 and 2021E). Statistics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the statistics major: STAT 111/135, 230, 231, 360, 370, or 495 (exceptions by petition to the department).

For the Spring 2020 semester only, Mathematics and Statistics students may apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any course taken in Spring 2020 required for the Math or Stat majors (including core courses).

For the 2020-21 academic year only, Mathematics and Statistics students may apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any course taken in 2020-21 required for the Math or Stat majors (including core courses) with the following restrictions: no more than one Pass grade may be applied to the Math or Stat major per term (Fall 20, January 21, Spring 21), and at most two total Pass grades from Fall 20, January 21, or Spring 21, can be applied to the Math or Stat major.

Requests for alternative courses must be approved in writing by the chair of the Department in consultation with the Statistics faculty within the Department. Students who have placed out of certain courses, such as calculus, introductory statistics, or introductory computer science, as indicated by strong performance on an Advanced Placement Exam or other evidence approved by the Department, are excused from taking those courses. Statistics majors may place out of up to three courses without having to replace those courses. Students placing out of more than three courses must replace all but three of those courses with additional courses approved by the Department to complete the major.

A student considering a major in Statistics should consult with a member of the Department as soon as possible, ideally during the first year. This will facilitate the arrangement of a program best suited to the student’s ability and interests, and accommodate study away. Students should also be aware that there is no single path through the major; courses do not have to be taken in numerical order (except where required by prerequisites). Statistics majors are strongly encouraged to ensure that their course of study includes depth in an application area (e.g., astronomy, environmental studies, political science, psychology, or sociology). Students majoring in Statistics are expected to attend all Statistics colloquia during their junior and senior years. Students planning to attend graduate school in statistics are strongly advised to take MATH 211, MATH 271 or 272, MATH 355, MATH 450, and additional courses with a focus on computation and algorithmic thinking (often found in computer science).

*Double Majors in Statistics and Mathematics.* Students electing a double major in Statistics and Mathematics may count MATH 111 and 121 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Mathematics major may be counted towards the Statistics major.

*Comprehensive Evaluation*. All Statistics majors will enroll in the capstone course STAT 495 (Advanced Data Analysis). Successful completion of this course satisfies the comprehensive evaluation in Statistics for the class of 2021, 2021E, and 2022.

*Honors Program in Statistics*. For a degree with Honors, a student must have demonstrated the ability to pursue independent work fruitfully and exhibit a strong motivation to engage in research. To apply to the Honors Program, students must have an average grade of B+ or higher in Statistics 230, 231, 360, and 370. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a thesis proposal, which must be accepted by the department. More information about the Honors Program can be found on the Department website.

If a student is accepted to the Honors Program, they will finalize a topic in consultation with Statistics faculty. After intensive study of this topic, the candidate will write a report in the form of a thesis which should be original in its presentation of material, if not in content. In addition, the candidate will report to the departmental colloquium on her or his thesis work during the senior year.

Starting with the class of 2023, honors students must complete an additional course for the major. The course must be broadly related to the thesis (e.g., a statistics elective with an introduction to the topic; linear algebra for more theoretical theses; an advanced Computer Science course for more computational theses). The thesis advisor must approve the course as “related”. Mathematics and Statistics double majors should note that only one course beyond calculus can count towards both majors.

### Mathematics

#### 102 Geometry and Relativity

The course is designed for students who do not intend to major in mathematics or physics. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Jagannathan.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 105 Calculus with Algebra

MATH 105 and 106 are designed for students whose background and algebraic skills are inadequate for the fast pace of MATH 111. In addition to covering the usual material of beginning calculus, these courses will have an extensive review of algebra and trigonometry. There will be a special emphasis on solving word problems.

MATH 105 starts with a quick review of algebraic manipulations, inequalities, absolute values and straight lines. Then the basic ideas of calculus—limits, derivatives, and integrals—are introduced, but only in the context of polynomial and rational functions. As various applications are studied, the algebraic techniques involved will be reviewed in more detail. When covering related rates and maximum-minimum problems, time will be spent learning how to approach, analyze and solve word problems. Four class meetings per week, one of which is a two-hour group-work day.

Note: While MATH 105 and 106 are sufficient for any course with a MATH 111 requisite, MATH 105 alone is not. However, students who plan to take MATH 121 should consider taking MATH 105 and then MATH 111, rather than MATH 106. Students cannot register for both MATH 105 and CHEM 151 in the same semester.

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 106 Calculus with Elementary Functions

MATH 106 is a continuation of MATH 105. Trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions will be studied from the point of view of both algebra and calculus. The applications encountered in MATH 105 will reappear in problems involving these new functions. The basic ideas and theorems of calculus will be reviewed in detail, with more attention being paid to rigor.

Requisite: MATH 105. Spring semester. Professor D. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 111 Introduction to the Calculus

Basic concepts of limits, derivatives, anti-derivatives; applications, including max/min problems and related rates; the definite integral, simple applications; trigonometric functions; logarithms and exponential functions. Four class hours per week.

Limited to 30 students per section. Fall and spring semesters. In the fall semester, the intensive section (Section 01) is open only to students listed as eligible on the Mathematics placement list. The intensive section replaces one weekly class hour with a 90-to-120-minute group work day. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 121 Intermediate Calculus

A continuation of MATH 111. Inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions; methods of integration, both exact and approximate; applications of integration to volume and arc length; improper integrals; l’Hôpital’s rule; infinite series, power series and the Taylor development; and polar coordinates. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 111 or placement into MATH 121 or consent of the Department. Limited to 30 students per section. Fall and spring semesters.The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

(Offered as STAT 135 and MATH 135) This course is an introductory statistics course that uses modeling as a unifying framework. The course provides a basic foundation in statistics with a major emphasis on constructing models from data. Students learn important concepts of statistics by mastering powerful and relatively advanced statistical techniques using computational tools. Topics include descriptive and inferential statistics, visualization, probability, study design, and multiple regression. Students who have taken a semester of calculus (MATH 111 or higher, or equivalent placement) or who are majoring or planning to major in mathematics and/or statistics should take this course instead of STAT 111. (Students who have taken STAT 111 or PSYC 122 may not also receive credit for STAT/MATH 135. Students who have taken ECON 360/361 will be admitted only with consent of the instructor.) No prior experience with statistical software is expected.

Requisite: MATH 111 or equivalent. Limited to 24 students per section. Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 140 Mathematical Modeling

Mathematical modeling is the process of translating a real world problem into a mathematical expression, analyzing it using mathematical tools and numerical simulations, and then interpreting the results in the context of the original problem. Discussion of basic modeling principles and case studies will be followed by several projects from areas including biology and the social sciences (e.g., flocking and schooling behavior, disease spread in populations, generation of artificial societies). This course has no requisites; projects will be tailored to each student’s level of mathematical preparation. Four class hours per week, with occasional in-class computer labs.

Limited to 24 students. Spring semester. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2012, Fall 2014, Spring 2016, Fall 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 142 Mathematical Modeling with Environmental Applications

Mathematical modeling is used by scientists to understand the dynamics of a system, make predictions and inform policy. It involves an iterative process of translating a real world problem into a mathematical expression, analyzing it using mathematical tools and numerical simulations, and interpreting the results. This course covers systems thinking and the principles of mathematical modeling in the context of environmental problems. Group projects will be centered on current environmental research questions. Contributions to the projects will be tailored to each student’s level of mathematical preparation and interest. Four class hours per week.

Limited to 24 students. This course and Math 140 cannot both be counted towards the Mathematics major. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 150 Voting and Elections: A Mathematical Perspective

The outcomes of many elections, whether to elect the next United States president or to rank college football teams, can displease many of the voters. How can perfectly fair elections produce results that nobody likes? We will analyze different voting systems, including majority rule, plurality rule, Borda count, and approval voting, and assess a voter’s power to influence the election under each system, for example, by calculating the Banzhaf power index. We will prove Arrow’s Theorem and discuss its implications. After exploring the pitfalls of various voting systems through both theoretical analysis and case studies, we will try to answer some pressing questions: Which voting system best reflects the will of the voters? Which is least susceptible to manipulation? What properties should we seek in a voting system, and how can we best attain them?

Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 211 Multivariable Calculus

Elementary vector calculus; introduction to partial derivatives; multiple integrals in two and three dimensions; line integrals in the plane; Green’s theorem; the Taylor development and extrema of functions of several variables; implicit function theorems; Jacobians. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 121 or placement into MATH 211 or consent of the Department. Limited to 30 students per section. Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 220 Mathematical Reasoning and Proof

This course serves as an introduction to mathematical reasoning and pays particular attention to helping students learn how to write proofs. The topics covered may include logic, elementary set theory, functions, relations and equivalence relations, mathematical induction, sequences, and quantifiers. Additional topics may vary from semester to semester. Four class hours per week.

Limited to 25 students. Spring and fall semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Fractal Geometry

This course is a mathematical treatment of fractal geometry, a field of mathematics partly developed by Benoit Mandelbrot (1924–2010) that continues to be actively researched in the present day. Fractal geometry is a mathematical examination of the concepts of self-similarity, fractals, and chaos, and their applications to the modeling of natural phenomena. In particular, we will develop the iterated function system (IFS) method for describing fractals, examine Julia sets, Mandelbrot sets, and study the concept of fractal dimension, among other things. Through the teaching of these concepts, the course will also lend itself to familiarizing students with some of the formalisms and rigor of mathematical proofs.

Requisite: MATH 211 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 35 students. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 250 Number Theory

An introduction to the theory of rational integers; divisibility, the unique factorization theorem; congruences, quadratic residues. Selections from the following topics: cryptology; Diophantine equations; asymptotic prime number estimates; continued fractions; algebraic integers. Four class hours per week. Offered in alternate years.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Fall semester. Professor Call.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2010, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 252 Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography

Many security problems arise when two computers must communicate on a channel with eavesdroppers or malicious attackers. Public-key cryptography applies ideas from number theory and abstract algebra to address these problems. This course concerns the mathematical theory and algorithms needed to construct the most commonly-used public-key ciphers and digital signature schemes, as well as the attacks that must be anticipated when designing such systems. Several topics from number theory, abstract algebra, and algorithms will be introduced, including discrete logarithms, integer factorization algorithms, and elliptic curves. Depending on time and student interest, we may cover some newer systems that are believed to be secure against attacks by quantum computers but not yet commonly implemented in practice. Students will write short programs to implement the systems and to break badly implemented systems. No prior programming experience is expected; basic aspects of programming in Python will be taught in class. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: Experience writing proofs, such as MATH 220/221 or 271/272, or consent of the instructor. Spring semester. Professor Pflueger.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 255 Geometry

About 2300 years ago, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method to mathematics in his geometry textbook, the *Elements*. In this book, Euclid deduced the theorems of geometry from a small number of simple axioms about points, lines, and circles. Among his axioms is the parallel axiom, which asserts that if we are given a line and a point not on the line, then there is a unique line through the given point that is parallel to the given line.

Over 2000 years after Euclid, mathematicians discovered that by replacing Euclid's parallel axiom with its negation, we can develop a different kind of geometry in which we still have geometric objects like triangles and circles, but many of the theorems and formulas are different. For example, the sum of the angles of a triangle will always be less than 180 degrees, and this sum will determine the area of the triangle.

In this course we will study both Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry. We will also consider the fascinating history of how non-Euclidean geometry was discovered. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 121. Spring semester. Professor Contreras.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2011, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020, Spring 2022

#### 260 Differential Equations

The study of differential equations is an important part of mathematics that involves many topics, both theoretical and practical. The course will cover first- and second-order ordinary differential equations, basic theorems concerning existence and uniqueness of solutions and continuous dependence on parameters, long-term behavior of solutions and approximate solutions. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Spring semester. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2023

#### 271 Linear Algebra

The study of vector spaces over the real and complex numbers, introducing the concepts of subspace, linear independence, basis, and dimension; systems of linear equations and their solution by Gaussian elimination; matrix operations; linear transformations and their representations by matrices; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; and inner product spaces. MATH 271 will feature both proofs and applications, with special attention paid to the theoretical development of the subject. Four class meetings per week.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. This course and MATH 272 may not both be taken for credit. Limited to 25 students. Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 272 Linear Algebra with Applications

The study of vector spaces over the real and complex numbers, introducing the concepts of subspace, linear independence, basis, and dimension; systems of linear equations and their solution by Gaussian elimination; matrix operations; linear transformations and their representations by matrices; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; and inner product spaces. This course will feature both proofs and applications, with special attention paid to applied topics such as least squares and singular value decomposition. Four class hours per week, with occasional in-class computer labs.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. This course and MATH 271 may not both be taken for credit. Limited to 25 students. Fall and Spring semester: The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022, Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2022, Fall 2023, Spring 2024

#### 275 A Second Course in Linear Algebra

This course is a continuation of the material in MATH 271 and 272, providing more insight into abstract vector spaces and operator theory. Topics may include least squares estimates, singular value decompositions, Jordan canonical forms, inner product spaces, linear functionals and duals, orthogonal polynomials, vector and matrix norms, the spectral theorem, eigenvalue inequalities, and error-correcting codes. Time permitting, applications to graph theory and discrete dynamical systems may be explored. Four class hours per week.

Requisites: MATH 271, MATH 272, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 280 Graph Theory

A graph is a collection of points with edges drawn between them. Graph theory was first introduced by Leonhard Euler in his solution to the Königsberg bridge problem in 1736. Since then, graph theory has become an active area of study in mathematics due both to its wide array of real life applications in biology, chemistry, social sciences and computer networking, and to its interactions with other branches of mathematics.

The course will start with an overview of the fundamental concepts and general results in graph theory, followed by explorations of a variety of topics in graph theory and their applications, including: connectivity, planar graphs, directed graphs, greedy algorithms, matchings, vertex and edge colorings. The course will end with the introduction of a more advanced topic. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 271 or 272 or consent of the instructor. MATH 220 or other prior experience with mathematical proofs is recommended. Limited to 30 students. Spring Semester. Professor R. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 281 Combinatorics

This course emphasizes enumerative combinatorics, a classical subject in mathematics related to the theory of counting. Problems in this area often pertain to finding the number of possible arrangements of a set of objects under some particular constraints. This course incorporates a wide set of problems involving enumerative combinatorics, as well as theory and applications. Topics include the sum and product rules; combinations and permutations; binomial and multinomial coefficients; the principle of inclusion and exclusion; generating functions; recurrence relations; Catalan, Stirling, Bell and Eulerian numbers; partitions; tableaux; and stable marriage. Additional topics may vary.

Requisite: MATH 121, and MATH 220 or other prior experience with basic mathematical proof techniques (e.g., induction) by consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Fall 2021

#### 284 Numerical Analysis

This course will study numerical techniques for a variety of problems, such as finding roots of polynomials, interpolation, numerical integration, numerical solutions of differential equations, and matrix computations. We will study the underlying theory behind the algorithms, including error analysis, and the algorithms will be implemented using mathematical software to facilitate numerical experimentation.

Requisite: MATH 211 and either 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2021

#### 294 Optimization

Optimization is a branch of applied mathematics focused on algorithms to determine maxima and minima of functions, often under constraints. Applications range from economics and finance to machine learning and information retrieval. This course will first develop advanced linear algebra tools, and then will study methods of convex optimization. Possible topics include linear, quadratic, second-order cone, and semidefinite models. Several applications will be explored, and algorithms will be implemented using mathematical software to aid numerical experimentation.

Requisite: MATH 211 and 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 30 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017

#### 310 Introduction to the Theory of Partitions

The theory of partitions is a fundamental branch of combinatorics and number theory pertaining to enumerative properties and patterns of the integers. With its mathematical origins tracing back to the seventeenth century, partition theory has evolved through contributions made by many influential mathematicians including Euler, Legendre, Hardy, Ramanujan, Selberg and Dyson, and continues to be an active area of study today. Topics include partition identities and bijections, Ferrers diagrams and Durfee squares, partition generating functions and q-series, the pentagonal number theorem, q-binomial numbers (Gaussian polynomials), and partition congruences.

Requisite: MATH 121 and 220, or other significant experience with proofs, or by consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2021

#### 320 Wavelet and Fourier Analysis

The first half of the course covers continuous and discrete Fourier transforms (including convolution and Plancherel’s formula), Fourier series (including convergence and the fast Fourier transform algorithm), and applications like heat conduction along a rod and signal processing. The second half of the course is devoted to wavelets: Haar bases, the discrete Haar transform in 1 and 2 dimensions with application to image analysis, multiresolution analysis, filters, and wavelet-based image compression like JPEG2000. Three class hours per week plus a weekly one-hour computer laboratory.

Requisite: MATH 211 and 271 or 272. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2009, Fall 2011, Fall 2013, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2019

#### 333 The Structure of Networks

Network structures and network dynamics are a fundamental modern tool for modeling a broad range of problems from fields like economics, biology, physics, and sociology. Mathematical and machine learning techniques can be used to reveal underlying network structures. The course will use graphs (sets of nodes connected by edges) as a common language to describe networks and their properties. On the theoretical side, the course will cover topics such as basic probability, degree distribution, spectral graph theory (adjacency matrix, graph Laplacian), diffusion geometries, and random graph models. Applications will range over topics such as epidemics, marketing, prediction of new links in a social network, and game theory. The course will also include hands-on experiments and simulations. Three class meetings per week.

Requisite: MATH 271 or MATH 272 or instructor's permission. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 345 Functions of a Complex Variable

An introduction to analytic functions; complex numbers, derivatives, conformal mappings, integrals. Cauchy’s theorem; power series, singularities, Laurent series, analytic continuation; Riemann surfaces; special functions. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 and prior experience with mathematical proofs, or consent of the instructor. Fall semester. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 350 Groups, Rings, and Fields

A brief consideration of properties of sets, mappings, and the system of integers, followed by an introduction to the theory of groups and rings including the principal theorems on homomorphisms and the related quotient structures; integral domains, fields, polynomial rings. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 and either MATH 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Students with a grade of B+ or lower in linear algebra are encouraged to take another 200-level course with proofs before taking MATH 350.

Limited to 25 students. Fall semester: Professor R. Benedetto. Spring semester: Professor Daniels.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 355 Introduction to Analysis

Completeness of the real numbers; topology of n-space including the Bolzano-Weierstrass and Heine-Borel theorems; sequences, properties of continuous functions on sets; infinite series, uniform convergence. The course may also study the Gamma function, Stirling’s formula, or Fourier series. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 and either MATH 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Students with a grade of B+ or lower in linear algebra are encouraged to take another 200-level course with proofs before taking MATH 355.

Limited to 25 students. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 360 Probability

(Offered as STAT 360 and MATH 360) This course explores the nature of probability and its use in modeling real world phenomena. There are two explicit complementary goals: to explore probability theory and its use in applied settings, and to learn parallel analytic and empirical problem-solving skills. The course begins with the development of an intuitive feel for probabilistic thinking, based on the simple yet subtle idea of counting. It then evolves toward the rigorous study of discrete and continuous probability spaces, independence, conditional probability, expectation, and variance. Distributions covered include the binomial, hypergeometric, Poisson, normal, Gamma, Beta, multinomial, and bivariate normal. Other topics include generating functions, order statistics, and limit theorems.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor Donges.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 365 Stochastic Processes

A stochastic process is a collection of random variables used to model the evolution of a system over time. Unlike deterministic systems, stochastic processes involve an element of randomness or uncertainty. Examples include stock market fluctuations, audio signals, EEG recordings, and random movement such as Brownian motion and random walks. Topics will include Markov chains, martingales, Brownian motion, and stochastic integration, including Ito’s formula. Four class hours per week, with weekly in-class computer labs.

Requisite: MATH 360 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Spring 2022

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

(Offered as STAT 370 and MATH 370) This course examines the theory underlying common statistical procedures including visualization, exploratory analysis, estimation, hypothesis testing, modeling, and Bayesian inference. Topics include maximum likelihood estimators, sufficient statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing and test selection, non-parametric procedures, and linear models.

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135 and STAT 360, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Spring semester. Professor Donges.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 372 Real Analysis in Higher Dimensions

This course builds upon the material in MATH 355 (Introduction to Analysis) in order to rigorously develop basic tools for studying functions of more than one real variable. While the setting in MATH 355 is the real number line, the context for this course will be the n-dimensional Euclidean space. Many facets of analysis on this n-dimensional space will be explored including its topological properties as well as differentiation and Riemann integration in n-variables. The course will cover fundamental results such as the celebrated implicit and inverse function theorems. Time permitting, we may discuss additional topics such as analysis on metric spaces. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 355 and either MATH 271 or 272; or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 385 Mathematical Logic

Mathematicians confirm their answers to mathematical questions by writing proofs. But what, exactly, is a proof? This course begins with a precise definition specifying what counts as a mathematical proof. This definition makes it possible to carry out a mathematical study of what can be accomplished by means of deductive reasoning and, perhaps more interestingly, what cannot be accomplished. Topics will include the propositional and predicate calculi, completeness, compactness, and decidability. At the end of the course we will study Gödel’s famous Incompleteness Theorem, which shows that there are statements about the positive integers that are true but impossible to prove. Four class hours per week. Offered in alternate years.

Requisite: MATH 220, 271, 272, or 355, or consent of the instructor. Spring semester. Professor Ching.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 390, 490 Special Topics

Independent reading course.

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 410 Galois Theory

The quadratic formula shows us that the roots of a quadratic polynomial possess a certain symmetry. Galois Theory is the study of the corresponding symmetry for higher degree polynomials. We will develop this theory starting from a basic knowledge of groups, rings, and fields. One of our main goals will be to prove that there is no general version of the quadratic formula for a polynomial of degree five or more. Along the way, we will also show that a circular cake can be divided into 17 (but not 7) equal slices using only a straight-edged knife.

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2013, Spring 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2019

#### 415 Introduction to Commutative Algebra

Commutative algebra is known as the study of commutative rings and their ideals and modules. Besides being an important branch of algebra for its own sake, commutative algebra has strong ties to other areas, such as algebraic geometry and algebraic number theory, as it provides essential tools for them. This course is an introductory course in commutative algebra. We will explore more about rings (especially polynomial rings) and ideals, which are taught in Math 350. We will also introduce another important algebraic structure, namely modules over rings. Other fundamental topics include Noetherian rings, The Hilbert Basis Theorem, Gröbner bases, localization, primary decompositions, and tensor products.

Requisite: Math 350 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Visiting Assistant Professor Gunturkun.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2021

#### 420 The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

An elliptic curve is the set of zeros of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, it is natural to ask for a description of those zeros whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. Our study of elliptic curves will focus on this fundamental problem and reveal a fascinating interplay between algebra, geometry, analysis and number theory. Topics discussed will include the geometry and group structure of elliptic curves, the Nagell-Lutz Theorem describing points of finite order, and the Mordell-Weil theorem on the finite generation of the group of rational points. Additional topics may include elliptic curve cryptography, Lenstra's algorithm using elliptic curves to factor large integers, the Thue-Siegel Theorem on the finiteness of the set of integer points, and the crucial role the theory of elliptic curves played in Wiles' proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. By bringing together techniques from a wide range of mathematical disciplines, we plan to illustrate the unity of mathematics and introduce active areas of research. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 450 Measure Theory and Integration

An introduction to Lebesgue measure and integration; topology of the real numbers; inner and outer measures and measurable set; the approximation of continuous and measurable functions; the Lebesgue integral and associated convergence theorems; the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 355. Professor R. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 455 Topology

An introduction to general topology: the topology of Euclidean, metric and abstract spaces, with emphasis on such notions as continuous mappings, compactness, connectedness, completeness, separable spaces, separation axioms, and metrizable spaces. Additional topics may be selected to illustrate applications of topology in analysis or to introduce the student briefly to algebraic topology. Four class hours per week. Offered in alternate years.

Requisite: MATH 355. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 460 Analytic Number Theory

This course is an introduction to Analytic Number Theory, a foundational subject in mathematics which dates back to the 1800s and is still a major research area today. The subject generally uses tools and techniques which are analytic in nature to solve problems primarily related to integers. Asymptotic and summation results and methods are of great significance in Analytic Number Theory. Two primary course objectives are to state and prove two major theorems: Dirichlet's Theorem on Primes in Arithmetic Progressions, and the Prime Number Theorem. In particular, we will study Selberg's "elementary" proof of the Prime Number Theorem, as well as an analytic proof. Additional topics may include: arithmetic functions, especially their averages, their asymptotics, and related summation formulae; Dirichlet convolutions; characters and Gauss sums; and an introduction to Dirichlet series, such as the Riemann zeta-function and L-functions. Further topics may vary.

Requisite: At least two among MATH 345, MATH 350, and MATH 355, with MATH 345 preferred; or by consent of the instructor. Prior experience with number theory, such as MATH 250, may be helpful but is not required. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2018, Fall 2020

#### 498, 499 Senior Departmental Honors

Open to seniors with the consent of the Department. Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

### Statistics

#### 108 Statistical Ethics and Institutions

(Offered as STAT 108 and ECON 108) This course will provide a rigorous presentation of fundamental statistical principles and ethics. We will discuss standards for relationships between statisticians and policymakers, researchers, the press, and other institutions, as well as the standards for interactions between statisticians and their employers/clients, colleagues and research subjects. The course will explore how the interplay of institutions (e.g., organizations, systems, laws, codes of professional ethics) and the broader sociopolitical culture affect the production of reliable, high quality statistics. Students will also explore the implications of statistical principles and ethics for the operation of national, regional, and international official statistical systems. In addition, we will investigate the proper place of official statistics within a government system that operates with separate branches. Students will gain a strong foundation in international statistical principles and professional ethics as well as an understanding and the tools to assess the quality of the statistics they use. The course is designed to make students responsible and effective supporters of reliable, high quality statistics in their professions. Students will particularly learn how to assess the quality of official statistics produced by governments and how to identify areas for improvement. Examples, case studies, readings from statistical practice, and discussion will provide a full appreciation of real world applications. The course is also intended for non-majors interested in an introduction to quantitative social science and the use of data in public policy.

Limited to 30 students. Visiting Scholar Andreas Georgiou.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2021

#### 111 Introduction to Statistics

Introduction to Statistics provides a basic foundation in descriptive and inferential statistics, including constructing models from data. Students will learn to think critically about data, produce meaningful graphical and numerical summaries of data, apply basic probability models, and utilize statistical inference procedures using computational tools. Topics include basic descriptive and inferential statistics, visualization, study design, and multiple regression. Students who have taken a semester of calculus (MATH 111 or higher, or equivalent placement) or who are planning to major in statistics should take STAT 135/MATH 135 instead of this course. (Students who have taken STAT/MATH 135, PSYC 122, or ECON 360/361 may not also receive credit for STAT 111, and STAT 111 does not count towards the major in Mathematics.)

Limited to 24 students per section. Permission with consent of the instructor. Fall semester. Professor Matheson.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

(Offered as STAT 135 and MATH 135) This course is an introductory statistics course that uses modeling as a unifying framework. The course provides a basic foundation in statistics with a major emphasis on constructing models from data. Students learn important concepts of statistics by mastering powerful and relatively advanced statistical techniques using computational tools. Topics include descriptive and inferential statistics, visualization, probability, study design, and multiple regression. Students who have taken a semester of calculus (MATH 111 or higher, or equivalent placement) or who are majoring or planning to major in mathematics and/or statistics should take this course instead of STAT 111. (Students who have taken STAT 111 or PSYC 122 may not also receive credit for STAT/MATH 135. Students who have taken ECON 360/361 will be admitted only with consent of the instructor.) No prior experience with statistical software is expected.

Requisite: MATH 111 or equivalent. Limited to 24 students per section. Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Nonparametric Statistics

This course is an introduction to nonparametric and distribution-free statistical procedures and techniques. These methods rely heavily on counting and ranking techniques and will be explored through both theoretical and applied perspectives. One- and two-sample procedures will provide students with alternatives to traditional parametric procedures, such as the t-test. We will also investigate correlation and regression in a nonparametric setting. A variety of other topics may be explored in the nonparametric setting including resampling techniques (for example, bootstrapping), categorical data and contingency tables, density estimation, and the one-way and two-way layouts for analysis of variance. The course will emphasize data analysis (with appropriate use of statistical software) and the intuitive nature of nonparametric statistics.

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135. Limited to 24 students. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 230 Intermediate Statistics

This course is an intermediate applied statistics course that builds on the statistical data analysis methods introduced in STAT 111 or STAT 135. Students will learn how to pose a statistical question, perform appropriate statistical analysis of the data, and properly interpret and communicate their results. Emphasis will be placed on the use of statistical software, data wrangling, model fitting, and assessment. Topics covered will include ethics, experimental design, resampling approaches, analysis of variance models, multiple regression, model selection, and logistic regression. No prior experience with statistical software is expected

Requisite: STAT 111 or 135. Limited to 24 students. Four spots reserved for incoming first-year students in each Fall section. Fall and Spring semester. Fall Professor Liao, Spring Professor Liao, Professor Matheson

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2012, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 231 Data Science

Computational data analysis is an essential part of modern statistics and data science. This course provides a practical foundation for students to think with data by participating in the entire data analysis cycle. Students will generate statistical questions and then address them through data acquisition, cleaning, transforming, modeling, and interpretation. This course will introduce students to tools for data management, wrangling, and databases that are common in data science and will apply those tools to real-world applications. Students will undertake practical analyses of large, complex, and messy data sets leveraging modern computing tools

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135 and COSC 111 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall and Spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 240 Multivariate Data Analysis

Making sense of a complex, high-dimensional data set is not an easy task. The analysis chosen is ultimately based on the research question(s) being asked. This course will explore how to visualize and extract meaning from large data sets through a variety of analytical methods. Methods covered include principal components analysis and selected statistical and machine learning techniques, both supervised (e.g. classification trees and random forests) and unsupervised (e.g. clustering). Additional methods covered may include factor analysis, dimension reduction methods, or network analysis at instructor discretion. This course will feature hands-on data analysis with statistical software, emphasizing application over theory.

The course is expected to include small group work, interactive labs, peer interactions such as peer review and short presentations, and a personal project, to foster student engagement in the course and with each other.

Requisite: STAT 111 or 135. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Wagaman.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2019, Fall 2020

#### 320 Statistics Communication

Statistical Communication is an important component of the capacity to "think with data." This course will integrate theoretical and practical aspects of statistics with a focus on communicating results and their implications. Students will gain experience clearly synthesizing and explaining complex data using diverse predictive and explanatory models. Learning objectives include: understanding the role of a statistician, developing communications skills, working collaboratively on group projects, designing studies to collect information, acquiring existing data resources, utilizing publications in statistics, creating reproducible research and developing oral arguments, relevant project reports, and dynamic graphical displays. Emphasis will be placed on the use of statistical software, data management, visual presentation, and oral and written communication skills that are necessary for communicating technical content.

Requisite: STAT 230 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Matheson.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 340 Epidemiology and Causal Inference

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease and health in human populations. It typically involves the analysis of multivariate observational data that pose challenges when trying to make causal conclusions. The course will focus on reasoning about cause and effect, study design, bias and missing data, models and analysis of risk, detection and classification, and modern approaches to confounding and causal inference. Topics include: Measures of disease (incidence and prevalence); Measures of association (relative risk, odds ratio, relative hazard, excess risk, attributable risk); Study designs (exposure and disease base sampling); Assessing significance in a 2x2 table; Assessing significance in a 2x2x2 table; Missing data; Introduction to confounding; Matching; Propensity score adjustment; Unmeasured confounding; Introduction to causal inference and counterfactuals; Causal graphs; and D-separation.

Requisite: STAT-230 (or PSYC 122 and PSYC 200 and consent of the instructor). Omitted 2021-22.. Professor Horton.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 360 Probability

(Offered as STAT 360 and MATH 360) This course explores the nature of probability and its use in modeling real world phenomena. There are two explicit complementary goals: to explore probability theory and its use in applied settings, and to learn parallel analytic and empirical problem-solving skills. The course begins with the development of an intuitive feel for probabilistic thinking, based on the simple yet subtle idea of counting. It then evolves toward the rigorous study of discrete and continuous probability spaces, independence, conditional probability, expectation, and variance. Distributions covered include the binomial, hypergeometric, Poisson, normal, Gamma, Beta, multinomial, and bivariate normal. Other topics include generating functions, order statistics, and limit theorems.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor Donges.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

(Offered as STAT 370 and MATH 370) This course examines the theory underlying common statistical procedures including visualization, exploratory analysis, estimation, hypothesis testing, modeling, and Bayesian inference. Topics include maximum likelihood estimators, sufficient statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing and test selection, non-parametric procedures, and linear models.

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135 and STAT 360, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Spring semester. Professor Donges.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 375 Statistical Aspects of Competition

Competitions, which can include individual and team sports, eSports, tabletop gaming, preference formation, and elections, produce data dependent on interrelated competitors and the decision, league, or tournament format. In this course, students will learn to think about the ways a wide variety of statistical methodologies can be applied to the complex and unique data that emerge through competition, including paired comparisons, decision analysis, rank-based and kernel methods, and spatio-temporal methods. The course will focus on the statistical theory relevant to analyzing data from contests and place an emphasis on simulation and data visualization techniques. Students will develop data collection, wrangling,combination, exploration, analysis, and interpretation skills individually and in groups. Applications may include rating players and teams, assessing shot quality, animating player tracking data, roster construction, comparing alternative voting systems, developing optimal strategies for games, and predicting outcomes. Prior experience with probability such as STAT 360 may be helpful, but is not required.

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 231. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 456 Generalized Linear Models and Mixed Models

Linear regression and logistic regression are powerful tools for statistical analysis, but they are only a subset of a broader class of generalized linear models. This course will explore the theory behind and practical application of generalized linear models for responses that do not have a normal distribution, including counts, categories, and proportions. We will also delve into extensions of these models for dependent responses such as repeated measures over time.

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 360. Limited to 20 students. Spring semester. Professor Bailey.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 490 Special Topics

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 495 Advanced Data Analysis

Our world is awash in data. To allow decisions to be made based on evidence, there is a need for statisticians to be able to make sense of the data around us and communicate their findings. In this course, students will be exposed to advanced statistical methods and will undertake the analysis and interpretation of complex and real-world datasets that go beyond textbook problems. Course topics will vary from year to year depending on the instructor and selected case studies but will include static and dynamic visualization techniques to summarize and display high dimensional data, advanced topics in design and linear regression, ethics, and selected topics in data mining. Other topics may vary but might include nonparametric analysis, spatial data, and analysis of network data. Through a series of case studies, students will develop the capacity to think and compute with data, undertake and assess analyses, and effectively communicate their results using written and oral presentation.

Requisite: STAT 230, STAT 231, STAT 370, and the computing requirement; or consent of the instructor. Recommended requisite: STAT 231. Limited to 20 students. Fall semester. Professor Wagaman.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 498, 499 Senior Honors

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

### About Amherst College

#### About Amherst College

Back## Mathematics and Statistics

Professors R. Benedetto, Call, Folsom, Horton‡, and Leise; Associate Professors Ching (Chair) and Wagaman; Assistant Professors Alvarado*, Bailey, Contreras*, Correia*, Culiuc‡, Daniels, Liao, Pflueger†, and Yacoubou Djima*; Senior Lecturer D. Benedetto; Lecturer Donges and Zhang; Visiting Assistant Professors Güntürkün, Matheson, McShane, Moore, Moreno, Rasheed; Mathematics Associate Allison Tanguay.

The Department offers the major in Mathematics and the major in Statistics, as well as courses meeting a wide variety of interests in these fields. Non-majors who seek introductory courses are advised to consider MATH 105, 111, 140, and 220 and STAT 111, none of which require a background beyond high school mathematics.

**Mathematics**

*Major Program*. Mathematics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the mathematics major: MATH 111, 121, 211, 271/2, 350, or 355 (exceptions by petition to the department). Along with the required courses, a major must complete three elective courses in Mathematics numbered 135 or higher. For majors declared after May 17, 2017, at least two of these electives must be numbered 200 or higher. In addition, a major must complete two other courses, each of which is either an elective course in Mathematics numbered between 135 and 490 or a course from outside Mathematics, but in a related field, chosen from among COSC 201 or 211, 301 or 311, and 401; ECON 300, 301, 361, and 420; PHIL 350; any Physics course numbered 116 or higher (excluding PHYS 227); any Astronomy course numbered 226 or higher; and any Statistics course numbered 200 or higher. Statistics courses cross-listed with Mathematics count as Mathematics electives. The additional requirement of two courses can be satisfied by taking two math electives, one math elective and one related-fields course, or two related-fields courses. Requests for alternative courses must be approved in writing by the chair of the Department in consultation with the Mathematics faculty within the Department. Honors students may petition the department to count one math thesis course as an elective toward the major.

For the Spring 2020 semester only, Mathematics and Statistics students may apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any course taken in Spring 2020 required for the Math or Stat majors (including core courses).

For the 2020-21 academic year only, Mathematics and Statistics students may apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any course taken in 2020-21 required for the Math or Stat majors (including core courses) with the following restrictions: no more than one Pass grade may be applied to the Math or Stat major per term (Fall 20, January 21, Spring 21), and at most two total Pass grades from Fall 20, January 21, or Spring 21, can be applied to the Math or Stat major.

Students who have placed out of certain courses, such as calculus, as indicated by a strong performance on an Advanced Placement Exam or other evidence approved by the department, such as a competency exam are excused from taking those courses. Students who place out of MATH 111, 121 or 211 do not need to replace these courses. Students who place out of MATH 271, 272, 350, or 355 exam must replace each such course with an additional Mathematics course numbered 135 or higher.

A student considering a major in Mathematics should consult with a member of the Department as soon as possible, preferably during the first year. This will facilitate the arrangement of a program best suited to the student’s ability and interests. Students should also be aware that there is no single path through the major; courses do not have to be taken in numerical order (except where required by prerequisites).

All students majoring in Mathematics are encouraged to include in their program courses that include concepts and methods from data analysis, mathematical modeling, and computation (e.g., MATH 135/STAT 135, MATH 140, MATH 284, MATH 360/STAT 360, or COSC 111). Students majoring in Mathematics are expected to attend all Mathematics colloquia during their junior and senior years.

For a student considering graduate study, the Departmental Honors program is strongly recommended. Such a student is advised to take the Graduate Record Examination early in the senior year. It is also desirable to have a reading knowledge of a foreign language, usually French, German, or Russian.

*Double Majors in Mathematics and Statistics. *Students electing a double major in Mathematics and Statistics may count MATH 111, 121, 211, and MATH 271 or 272 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Statistics major may be counted towards the Mathematics major.

*Comprehensive Examination*. A comprehensive examination will be given near the beginning of the spring semester of the senior year. (Those who will complete their studies in the fall semester may elect instead to take the comprehensive examination at the beginning of that semester.) The examination covers MATH 211, MATH 271 or 272, and a choice of MATH 350 or 355. More information about the comprehensive examination, including regulations and study materials, can be found on the Department website.

*Honors Program in Mathematics*. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a qualifying examination given at the beginning of the spring semester of their junior year and the acceptance of a thesis proposal. (Those for whom the second semester of the junior year occurs in the fall may elect instead to take the qualifying examination at the beginning of that semester.) If a student is accepted to the Honors Program, they will finalize a topic in consultation with Mathematics faculty. After intensive study of this topic, the candidate will write a report in the form of a thesis which should be original in its presentation of material, if not in content. In addition, the candidate will report to the departmental colloquium on their thesis work during the senior year. Honors candidates are also required to complete MATH 345 and at least one Mathematics course numbered 400 to 489.

**Statistics**

*Major Program.* The minimum requirements for the Statistics major include MATH 111, and 121; STAT 111 or STAT 135 (STAT 135 strongly recommended); STAT 230, 231, 360, 370, and 495; two courses in Computer Science at the level of 111 or higher (typically COSC 111 and COSC 112); and two additional elective courses in Statistics at the 200 level or higher (one elective course in Statistics at the 200 level or higher is required for the class of 2021 and 2021E). Statistics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the statistics major: STAT 111/135, 230, 231, 360, 370, or 495 (exceptions by petition to the department).

Requests for alternative courses must be approved in writing by the chair of the Department in consultation with the Statistics faculty within the Department. Students who have placed out of certain courses, such as calculus, introductory statistics, or introductory computer science, as indicated by strong performance on an Advanced Placement Exam or other evidence approved by the Department, are excused from taking those courses. Statistics majors may place out of up to three courses without having to replace those courses. Students placing out of more than three courses must replace all but three of those courses with additional courses approved by the Department to complete the major.

A student considering a major in Statistics should consult with a member of the Department as soon as possible, ideally during the first year. This will facilitate the arrangement of a program best suited to the student’s ability and interests, and accommodate study away. Students should also be aware that there is no single path through the major; courses do not have to be taken in numerical order (except where required by prerequisites). Statistics majors are strongly encouraged to ensure that their course of study includes depth in an application area (e.g., astronomy, environmental studies, political science, psychology, or sociology). Students majoring in Statistics are expected to attend all Statistics colloquia during their junior and senior years. Students planning to attend graduate school in statistics are strongly advised to take MATH 211, MATH 271 or 272, MATH 355, MATH 450, and additional courses with a focus on computation and algorithmic thinking (often found in computer science).

*Double Majors in Statistics and Mathematics.* Students electing a double major in Statistics and Mathematics may count MATH 111 and 121 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Mathematics major may be counted towards the Statistics major.

*Comprehensive Evaluation*. All Statistics majors will enroll in the capstone course STAT 495 (Advanced Data Analysis). Successful completion of this course satisfies the comprehensive evaluation in Statistics for the class of 2021, 2021E, and 2022.

*Honors Program in Statistics*. For a degree with Honors, a student must have demonstrated the ability to pursue independent work fruitfully and exhibit a strong motivation to engage in research. To apply to the Honors Program, students must have an average grade of B+ or higher in Statistics 230, 231, 360, and 370. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a thesis proposal, which must be accepted by the department. More information about the Honors Program can be found on the Department website.

If a student is accepted to the Honors Program, they will finalize a topic in consultation with Statistics faculty. After intensive study of this topic, the candidate will write a report in the form of a thesis which should be original in its presentation of material, if not in content. In addition, the candidate will report to the departmental colloquium on her or his thesis work during the senior year.

Starting with the class of 2023, honors students must complete an additional course for the major. The course must be broadly related to the thesis (e.g., a statistics elective with an introduction to the topic; linear algebra for more theoretical theses; an advanced Computer Science course for more computational theses). The thesis advisor must approve the course as “related”. Mathematics and Statistics double majors should note that only one course beyond calculus can count towards both majors.

### Mathematics

#### 102 Geometry and Relativity

The course is designed for students who do not intend to major in mathematics or physics. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Jagannathan.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 105 Calculus with Algebra

MATH 105 and 106 are designed for students whose background and algebraic skills are inadequate for the fast pace of MATH 111. In addition to covering the usual material of beginning calculus, these courses will have an extensive review of algebra and trigonometry. There will be a special emphasis on solving word problems.

MATH 105 starts with a quick review of algebraic manipulations, inequalities, absolute values and straight lines. Then the basic ideas of calculus—limits, derivatives, and integrals—are introduced, but only in the context of polynomial and rational functions. As various applications are studied, the algebraic techniques involved will be reviewed in more detail. When covering related rates and maximum-minimum problems, time will be spent learning how to approach, analyze and solve word problems. Four class meetings per week, one of which is a two-hour group-work day.

Note: While MATH 105 and 106 are sufficient for any course with a MATH 111 requisite, MATH 105 alone is not. However, students who plan to take MATH 121 should consider taking MATH 105 and then MATH 111, rather than MATH 106. Students cannot register for both MATH 105 and CHEM 151 in the same semester.

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 106 Calculus with Elementary Functions

MATH 106 is a continuation of MATH 105. Trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions will be studied from the point of view of both algebra and calculus. The applications encountered in MATH 105 will reappear in problems involving these new functions. The basic ideas and theorems of calculus will be reviewed in detail, with more attention being paid to rigor.

Requisite: MATH 105. Spring semester. Professor D. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 111 Introduction to the Calculus

Basic concepts of limits, derivatives, anti-derivatives; applications, including max/min problems and related rates; the definite integral, simple applications; trigonometric functions; logarithms and exponential functions. Four class hours per week.

Limited to 30 students per section. Fall and spring semesters. In the fall semester, the intensive section (Section 01) is open only to students listed as eligible on the Mathematics placement list. The intensive section replaces one weekly class hour with a 90-to-120-minute group work day. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 121 Intermediate Calculus

A continuation of MATH 111. Inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions; methods of integration, both exact and approximate; applications of integration to volume and arc length; improper integrals; l’Hôpital’s rule; infinite series, power series and the Taylor development; and polar coordinates. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 111 or placement into MATH 121 or consent of the Department. Limited to 30 students per section. Fall and spring semesters.The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

(Offered as STAT 135 and MATH 135) This course is an introductory statistics course that uses modeling as a unifying framework. The course provides a basic foundation in statistics with a major emphasis on constructing models from data. Students learn important concepts of statistics by mastering powerful and relatively advanced statistical techniques using computational tools. Topics include descriptive and inferential statistics, visualization, probability, study design, and multiple regression. Students who have taken a semester of calculus (MATH 111 or higher, or equivalent placement) or who are majoring or planning to major in mathematics and/or statistics should take this course instead of STAT 111. (Students who have taken STAT 111 or PSYC 122 may not also receive credit for STAT/MATH 135. Students who have taken ECON 360/361 will be admitted only with consent of the instructor.) No prior experience with statistical software is expected.

Requisite: MATH 111 or equivalent. Limited to 24 students per section. Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 140 Mathematical Modeling

Mathematical modeling is the process of translating a real world problem into a mathematical expression, analyzing it using mathematical tools and numerical simulations, and then interpreting the results in the context of the original problem. Discussion of basic modeling principles and case studies will be followed by several projects from areas including biology and the social sciences (e.g., flocking and schooling behavior, disease spread in populations, generation of artificial societies). This course has no requisites; projects will be tailored to each student’s level of mathematical preparation. Four class hours per week, with occasional in-class computer labs.

Limited to 24 students. Spring semester. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2012, Fall 2014, Spring 2016, Fall 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 142 Mathematical Modeling with Environmental Applications

Mathematical modeling is used by scientists to understand the dynamics of a system, make predictions and inform policy. It involves an iterative process of translating a real world problem into a mathematical expression, analyzing it using mathematical tools and numerical simulations, and interpreting the results. This course covers systems thinking and the principles of mathematical modeling in the context of environmental problems. Group projects will be centered on current environmental research questions. Contributions to the projects will be tailored to each student’s level of mathematical preparation and interest. Four class hours per week.

Limited to 24 students. This course and Math 140 cannot both be counted towards the Mathematics major. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 150 Voting and Elections: A Mathematical Perspective

The outcomes of many elections, whether to elect the next United States president or to rank college football teams, can displease many of the voters. How can perfectly fair elections produce results that nobody likes? We will analyze different voting systems, including majority rule, plurality rule, Borda count, and approval voting, and assess a voter’s power to influence the election under each system, for example, by calculating the Banzhaf power index. We will prove Arrow’s Theorem and discuss its implications. After exploring the pitfalls of various voting systems through both theoretical analysis and case studies, we will try to answer some pressing questions: Which voting system best reflects the will of the voters? Which is least susceptible to manipulation? What properties should we seek in a voting system, and how can we best attain them?

Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 211 Multivariable Calculus

Elementary vector calculus; introduction to partial derivatives; multiple integrals in two and three dimensions; line integrals in the plane; Green’s theorem; the Taylor development and extrema of functions of several variables; implicit function theorems; Jacobians. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 121 or placement into MATH 211 or consent of the Department. Limited to 30 students per section. Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 220 Mathematical Reasoning and Proof

This course serves as an introduction to mathematical reasoning and pays particular attention to helping students learn how to write proofs. The topics covered may include logic, elementary set theory, functions, relations and equivalence relations, mathematical induction, sequences, and quantifiers. Additional topics may vary from semester to semester. Four class hours per week.

Limited to 25 students. Spring and fall semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Fractal Geometry

This course is a mathematical treatment of fractal geometry, a field of mathematics partly developed by Benoit Mandelbrot (1924–2010) that continues to be actively researched in the present day. Fractal geometry is a mathematical examination of the concepts of self-similarity, fractals, and chaos, and their applications to the modeling of natural phenomena. In particular, we will develop the iterated function system (IFS) method for describing fractals, examine Julia sets, Mandelbrot sets, and study the concept of fractal dimension, among other things. Through the teaching of these concepts, the course will also lend itself to familiarizing students with some of the formalisms and rigor of mathematical proofs.

Requisite: MATH 211 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 35 students. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 250 Number Theory

An introduction to the theory of rational integers; divisibility, the unique factorization theorem; congruences, quadratic residues. Selections from the following topics: cryptology; Diophantine equations; asymptotic prime number estimates; continued fractions; algebraic integers. Four class hours per week. Offered in alternate years.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Fall semester. Professor Call.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2010, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 252 Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography

Many security problems arise when two computers must communicate on a channel with eavesdroppers or malicious attackers. Public-key cryptography applies ideas from number theory and abstract algebra to address these problems. This course concerns the mathematical theory and algorithms needed to construct the most commonly-used public-key ciphers and digital signature schemes, as well as the attacks that must be anticipated when designing such systems. Several topics from number theory, abstract algebra, and algorithms will be introduced, including discrete logarithms, integer factorization algorithms, and elliptic curves. Depending on time and student interest, we may cover some newer systems that are believed to be secure against attacks by quantum computers but not yet commonly implemented in practice. Students will write short programs to implement the systems and to break badly implemented systems. No prior programming experience is expected; basic aspects of programming in Python will be taught in class. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: Experience writing proofs, such as MATH 220/221 or 271/272, or consent of the instructor. Spring semester. Professor Pflueger.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 255 Geometry

About 2300 years ago, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method to mathematics in his geometry textbook, the *Elements*. In this book, Euclid deduced the theorems of geometry from a small number of simple axioms about points, lines, and circles. Among his axioms is the parallel axiom, which asserts that if we are given a line and a point not on the line, then there is a unique line through the given point that is parallel to the given line.

Over 2000 years after Euclid, mathematicians discovered that by replacing Euclid's parallel axiom with its negation, we can develop a different kind of geometry in which we still have geometric objects like triangles and circles, but many of the theorems and formulas are different. For example, the sum of the angles of a triangle will always be less than 180 degrees, and this sum will determine the area of the triangle.

In this course we will study both Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry. We will also consider the fascinating history of how non-Euclidean geometry was discovered. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 121. Spring semester. Professor Contreras.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2011, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020, Spring 2022

#### 260 Differential Equations

The study of differential equations is an important part of mathematics that involves many topics, both theoretical and practical. The course will cover first- and second-order ordinary differential equations, basic theorems concerning existence and uniqueness of solutions and continuous dependence on parameters, long-term behavior of solutions and approximate solutions. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Spring semester. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2023

#### 271 Linear Algebra

The study of vector spaces over the real and complex numbers, introducing the concepts of subspace, linear independence, basis, and dimension; systems of linear equations and their solution by Gaussian elimination; matrix operations; linear transformations and their representations by matrices; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; and inner product spaces. MATH 271 will feature both proofs and applications, with special attention paid to the theoretical development of the subject. Four class meetings per week.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. This course and MATH 272 may not both be taken for credit. Limited to 25 students. Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 272 Linear Algebra with Applications

The study of vector spaces over the real and complex numbers, introducing the concepts of subspace, linear independence, basis, and dimension; systems of linear equations and their solution by Gaussian elimination; matrix operations; linear transformations and their representations by matrices; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; and inner product spaces. This course will feature both proofs and applications, with special attention paid to applied topics such as least squares and singular value decomposition. Four class hours per week, with occasional in-class computer labs.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. This course and MATH 271 may not both be taken for credit. Limited to 25 students. Fall and Spring semester: The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022, Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2022, Fall 2023, Spring 2024

#### 275 A Second Course in Linear Algebra

This course is a continuation of the material in MATH 271 and 272, providing more insight into abstract vector spaces and operator theory. Topics may include least squares estimates, singular value decompositions, Jordan canonical forms, inner product spaces, linear functionals and duals, orthogonal polynomials, vector and matrix norms, the spectral theorem, eigenvalue inequalities, and error-correcting codes. Time permitting, applications to graph theory and discrete dynamical systems may be explored. Four class hours per week.

Requisites: MATH 271, MATH 272, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 280 Graph Theory

A graph is a collection of points with edges drawn between them. Graph theory was first introduced by Leonhard Euler in his solution to the Königsberg bridge problem in 1736. Since then, graph theory has become an active area of study in mathematics due both to its wide array of real life applications in biology, chemistry, social sciences and computer networking, and to its interactions with other branches of mathematics.

The course will start with an overview of the fundamental concepts and general results in graph theory, followed by explorations of a variety of topics in graph theory and their applications, including: connectivity, planar graphs, directed graphs, greedy algorithms, matchings, vertex and edge colorings. The course will end with the introduction of a more advanced topic. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 271 or 272 or consent of the instructor. MATH 220 or other prior experience with mathematical proofs is recommended. Limited to 30 students. Spring Semester. Professor R. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 281 Combinatorics

This course emphasizes enumerative combinatorics, a classical subject in mathematics related to the theory of counting. Problems in this area often pertain to finding the number of possible arrangements of a set of objects under some particular constraints. This course incorporates a wide set of problems involving enumerative combinatorics, as well as theory and applications. Topics include the sum and product rules; combinations and permutations; binomial and multinomial coefficients; the principle of inclusion and exclusion; generating functions; recurrence relations; Catalan, Stirling, Bell and Eulerian numbers; partitions; tableaux; and stable marriage. Additional topics may vary.

Requisite: MATH 121, and MATH 220 or other prior experience with basic mathematical proof techniques (e.g., induction) by consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Fall 2021

#### 284 Numerical Analysis

This course will study numerical techniques for a variety of problems, such as finding roots of polynomials, interpolation, numerical integration, numerical solutions of differential equations, and matrix computations. We will study the underlying theory behind the algorithms, including error analysis, and the algorithms will be implemented using mathematical software to facilitate numerical experimentation.

Requisite: MATH 211 and either 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2021

#### 294 Optimization

Optimization is a branch of applied mathematics focused on algorithms to determine maxima and minima of functions, often under constraints. Applications range from economics and finance to machine learning and information retrieval. This course will first develop advanced linear algebra tools, and then will study methods of convex optimization. Possible topics include linear, quadratic, second-order cone, and semidefinite models. Several applications will be explored, and algorithms will be implemented using mathematical software to aid numerical experimentation.

Requisite: MATH 211 and 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 30 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017

#### 310 Introduction to the Theory of Partitions

The theory of partitions is a fundamental branch of combinatorics and number theory pertaining to enumerative properties and patterns of the integers. With its mathematical origins tracing back to the seventeenth century, partition theory has evolved through contributions made by many influential mathematicians including Euler, Legendre, Hardy, Ramanujan, Selberg and Dyson, and continues to be an active area of study today. Topics include partition identities and bijections, Ferrers diagrams and Durfee squares, partition generating functions and q-series, the pentagonal number theorem, q-binomial numbers (Gaussian polynomials), and partition congruences.

Requisite: MATH 121 and 220, or other significant experience with proofs, or by consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2021

#### 320 Wavelet and Fourier Analysis

The first half of the course covers continuous and discrete Fourier transforms (including convolution and Plancherel’s formula), Fourier series (including convergence and the fast Fourier transform algorithm), and applications like heat conduction along a rod and signal processing. The second half of the course is devoted to wavelets: Haar bases, the discrete Haar transform in 1 and 2 dimensions with application to image analysis, multiresolution analysis, filters, and wavelet-based image compression like JPEG2000. Three class hours per week plus a weekly one-hour computer laboratory.

Requisite: MATH 211 and 271 or 272. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2009, Fall 2011, Fall 2013, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2019

#### 333 The Structure of Networks

Network structures and network dynamics are a fundamental modern tool for modeling a broad range of problems from fields like economics, biology, physics, and sociology. Mathematical and machine learning techniques can be used to reveal underlying network structures. The course will use graphs (sets of nodes connected by edges) as a common language to describe networks and their properties. On the theoretical side, the course will cover topics such as basic probability, degree distribution, spectral graph theory (adjacency matrix, graph Laplacian), diffusion geometries, and random graph models. Applications will range over topics such as epidemics, marketing, prediction of new links in a social network, and game theory. The course will also include hands-on experiments and simulations. Three class meetings per week.

Requisite: MATH 271 or MATH 272 or instructor's permission. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 345 Functions of a Complex Variable

An introduction to analytic functions; complex numbers, derivatives, conformal mappings, integrals. Cauchy’s theorem; power series, singularities, Laurent series, analytic continuation; Riemann surfaces; special functions. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 and prior experience with mathematical proofs, or consent of the instructor. Fall semester. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 350 Groups, Rings, and Fields

A brief consideration of properties of sets, mappings, and the system of integers, followed by an introduction to the theory of groups and rings including the principal theorems on homomorphisms and the related quotient structures; integral domains, fields, polynomial rings. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 and either MATH 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Students with a grade of B+ or lower in linear algebra are encouraged to take another 200-level course with proofs before taking MATH 350.

Limited to 25 students. Fall semester: Professor R. Benedetto. Spring semester: Professor Daniels.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 355 Introduction to Analysis

Completeness of the real numbers; topology of n-space including the Bolzano-Weierstrass and Heine-Borel theorems; sequences, properties of continuous functions on sets; infinite series, uniform convergence. The course may also study the Gamma function, Stirling’s formula, or Fourier series. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 and either MATH 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Students with a grade of B+ or lower in linear algebra are encouraged to take another 200-level course with proofs before taking MATH 355.

Limited to 25 students. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 360 Probability

(Offered as STAT 360 and MATH 360) This course explores the nature of probability and its use in modeling real world phenomena. There are two explicit complementary goals: to explore probability theory and its use in applied settings, and to learn parallel analytic and empirical problem-solving skills. The course begins with the development of an intuitive feel for probabilistic thinking, based on the simple yet subtle idea of counting. It then evolves toward the rigorous study of discrete and continuous probability spaces, independence, conditional probability, expectation, and variance. Distributions covered include the binomial, hypergeometric, Poisson, normal, Gamma, Beta, multinomial, and bivariate normal. Other topics include generating functions, order statistics, and limit theorems.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor Donges.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 365 Stochastic Processes

A stochastic process is a collection of random variables used to model the evolution of a system over time. Unlike deterministic systems, stochastic processes involve an element of randomness or uncertainty. Examples include stock market fluctuations, audio signals, EEG recordings, and random movement such as Brownian motion and random walks. Topics will include Markov chains, martingales, Brownian motion, and stochastic integration, including Ito’s formula. Four class hours per week, with weekly in-class computer labs.

Requisite: MATH 360 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Spring 2022

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

(Offered as STAT 370 and MATH 370) This course examines the theory underlying common statistical procedures including visualization, exploratory analysis, estimation, hypothesis testing, modeling, and Bayesian inference. Topics include maximum likelihood estimators, sufficient statistics, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing and test selection, non-parametric procedures, and linear models.

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135 and STAT 360, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Spring semester. Professor Donges.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 372 Real Analysis in Higher Dimensions

This course builds upon the material in MATH 355 (Introduction to Analysis) in order to rigorously develop basic tools for studying functions of more than one real variable. While the setting in MATH 355 is the real number line, the context for this course will be the n-dimensional Euclidean space. Many facets of analysis on this n-dimensional space will be explored including its topological properties as well as differentiation and Riemann integration in n-variables. The course will cover fundamental results such as the celebrated implicit and inverse function theorems. Time permitting, we may discuss additional topics such as analysis on metric spaces. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 355 and either MATH 271 or 272; or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 385 Mathematical Logic

Mathematicians confirm their answers to mathematical questions by writing proofs. But what, exactly, is a proof? This course begins with a precise definition specifying what counts as a mathematical proof. This definition makes it possible to carry out a mathematical study of what can be accomplished by means of deductive reasoning and, perhaps more interestingly, what cannot be accomplished. Topics will include the propositional and predicate calculi, completeness, compactness, and decidability. At the end of the course we will study Gödel’s famous Incompleteness Theorem, which shows that there are statements about the positive integers that are true but impossible to prove. Four class hours per week. Offered in alternate years.

Requisite: MATH 220, 271, 272, or 355, or consent of the instructor. Spring semester. Professor Ching.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 390, 490 Special Topics

Independent reading course.

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 410 Galois Theory

The quadratic formula shows us that the roots of a quadratic polynomial possess a certain symmetry. Galois Theory is the study of the corresponding symmetry for higher degree polynomials. We will develop this theory starting from a basic knowledge of groups, rings, and fields. One of our main goals will be to prove that there is no general version of the quadratic formula for a polynomial of degree five or more. Along the way, we will also show that a circular cake can be divided into 17 (but not 7) equal slices using only a straight-edged knife.

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2013, Spring 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2019

#### 415 Introduction to Commutative Algebra

Commutative algebra is known as the study of commutative rings and their ideals and modules. Besides being an important branch of algebra for its own sake, commutative algebra has strong ties to other areas, such as algebraic geometry and algebraic number theory, as it provides essential tools for them. This course is an introductory course in commutative algebra. We will explore more about rings (especially polynomial rings) and ideals, which are taught in Math 350. We will also introduce another important algebraic structure, namely modules over rings. Other fundamental topics include Noetherian rings, The Hilbert Basis Theorem, Gröbner bases, localization, primary decompositions, and tensor products.

Requisite: Math 350 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Visiting Assistant Professor Gunturkun.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2021

#### 420 The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

An elliptic curve is the set of zeros of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, it is natural to ask for a description of those zeros whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. Our study of elliptic curves will focus on this fundamental problem and reveal a fascinating interplay between algebra, geometry, analysis and number theory. Topics discussed will include the geometry and group structure of elliptic curves, the Nagell-Lutz Theorem describing points of finite order, and the Mordell-Weil theorem on the finite generation of the group of rational points. Additional topics may include elliptic curve cryptography, Lenstra's algorithm using elliptic curves to factor large integers, the Thue-Siegel Theorem on the finiteness of the set of integer points, and the crucial role the theory of elliptic curves played in Wiles' proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. By bringing together techniques from a wide range of mathematical disciplines, we plan to illustrate the unity of mathematics and introduce active areas of research. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 450 Measure Theory and Integration

An introduction to Lebesgue measure and integration; topology of the real numbers; inner and outer measures and measurable set; the approximation of continuous and measurable functions; the Lebesgue integral and associated convergence theorems; the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 355. Professor R. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 455 Topology

An introduction to general topology: the topology of Euclidean, metric and abstract spaces, with emphasis on such notions as continuous mappings, compactness, connectedness, completeness, separable spaces, separation axioms, and metrizable spaces. Additional topics may be selected to illustrate applications of topology in analysis or to introduce the student briefly to algebraic topology. Four class hours per week. Offered in alternate years.

Requisite: MATH 355. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 460 Analytic Number Theory

This course is an introduction to Analytic Number Theory, a foundational subject in mathematics which dates back to the 1800s and is still a major research area today. The subject generally uses tools and techniques which are analytic in nature to solve problems primarily related to integers. Asymptotic and summation results and methods are of great significance in Analytic Number Theory. Two primary course objectives are to state and prove two major theorems: Dirichlet's Theorem on Primes in Arithmetic Progressions, and the Prime Number Theorem. In particular, we will study Selberg's "elementary" proof of the Prime Number Theorem, as well as an analytic proof. Additional topics may include: arithmetic functions, especially their averages, their asymptotics, and related summation formulae; Dirichlet convolutions; characters and Gauss sums; and an introduction to Dirichlet series, such as the Riemann zeta-function and L-functions. Further topics may vary.

Requisite: At least two among MATH 345, MATH 350, and MATH 355, with MATH 345 preferred; or by consent of the instructor. Prior experience with number theory, such as MATH 250, may be helpful but is not required. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2018, Fall 2020

#### 498, 499 Senior Departmental Honors

Open to seniors with the consent of the Department. Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

### Statistics

#### 108 Statistical Ethics and Institutions

(Offered as STAT 108 and ECON 108) This course will provide a rigorous presentation of fundamental statistical principles and ethics. We will discuss standards for relationships between statisticians and policymakers, researchers, the press, and other institutions, as well as the standards for interactions between statisticians and their employers/clients, colleagues and research subjects. The course will explore how the interplay of institutions (e.g., organizations, systems, laws, codes of professional ethics) and the broader sociopolitical culture affect the production of reliable, high quality statistics. Students will also explore the implications of statistical principles and ethics for the operation of national, regional, and international official statistical systems. In addition, we will investigate the proper place of official statistics within a government system that operates with separate branches. Students will gain a strong foundation in international statistical principles and professional ethics as well as an understanding and the tools to assess the quality of the statistics they use. The course is designed to make students responsible and effective supporters of reliable, high quality statistics in their professions. Students will particularly learn how to assess the quality of official statistics produced by governments and how to identify areas for improvement. Examples, case studies, readings from statistical practice, and discussion will provide a full appreciation of real world applications. The course is also intended for non-majors interested in an introduction to quantitative social science and the use of data in public policy.

Limited to 30 students. Visiting Scholar Andreas Georgiou.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2021

#### 111 Introduction to Statistics

Introduction to Statistics provides a basic foundation in descriptive and inferential statistics, including constructing models from data. Students will learn to think critically about data, produce meaningful graphical and numerical summaries of data, apply basic probability models, and utilize statistical inference procedures using computational tools. Topics include basic descriptive and inferential statistics, visualization, study design, and multiple regression. Students who have taken a semester of calculus (MATH 111 or higher, or equivalent placement) or who are planning to major in statistics should take STAT 135/MATH 135 instead of this course. (Students who have taken STAT/MATH 135, PSYC 122, or ECON 360/361 may not also receive credit for STAT 111, and STAT 111 does not count towards the major in Mathematics.)

Limited to 24 students per section. Permission with consent of the instructor. Fall semester. Professor Matheson.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Nonparametric Statistics

This course is an introduction to nonparametric and distribution-free statistical procedures and techniques. These methods rely heavily on counting and ranking techniques and will be explored through both theoretical and applied perspectives. One- and two-sample procedures will provide students with alternatives to traditional parametric procedures, such as the t-test. We will also investigate correlation and regression in a nonparametric setting. A variety of other topics may be explored in the nonparametric setting including resampling techniques (for example, bootstrapping), categorical data and contingency tables, density estimation, and the one-way and two-way layouts for analysis of variance. The course will emphasize data analysis (with appropriate use of statistical software) and the intuitive nature of nonparametric statistics.

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135. Limited to 24 students. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 230 Intermediate Statistics

This course is an intermediate applied statistics course that builds on the statistical data analysis methods introduced in STAT 111 or STAT 135. Students will learn how to pose a statistical question, perform appropriate statistical analysis of the data, and properly interpret and communicate their results. Emphasis will be placed on the use of statistical software, data wrangling, model fitting, and assessment. Topics covered will include ethics, experimental design, resampling approaches, analysis of variance models, multiple regression, model selection, and logistic regression. No prior experience with statistical software is expected

Requisite: STAT 111 or 135. Limited to 24 students. Four spots reserved for incoming first-year students in each Fall section. Fall and Spring semester. Fall Professor Liao, Spring Professor Liao, Professor Matheson

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2012, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 231 Data Science

Computational data analysis is an essential part of modern statistics and data science. This course provides a practical foundation for students to think with data by participating in the entire data analysis cycle. Students will generate statistical questions and then address them through data acquisition, cleaning, transforming, modeling, and interpretation. This course will introduce students to tools for data management, wrangling, and databases that are common in data science and will apply those tools to real-world applications. Students will undertake practical analyses of large, complex, and messy data sets leveraging modern computing tools

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135 and COSC 111 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall and Spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 240 Multivariate Data Analysis

Making sense of a complex, high-dimensional data set is not an easy task. The analysis chosen is ultimately based on the research question(s) being asked. This course will explore how to visualize and extract meaning from large data sets through a variety of analytical methods. Methods covered include principal components analysis and selected statistical and machine learning techniques, both supervised (e.g. classification trees and random forests) and unsupervised (e.g. clustering). Additional methods covered may include factor analysis, dimension reduction methods, or network analysis at instructor discretion. This course will feature hands-on data analysis with statistical software, emphasizing application over theory.

The course is expected to include small group work, interactive labs, peer interactions such as peer review and short presentations, and a personal project, to foster student engagement in the course and with each other.

Requisite: STAT 111 or 135. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Wagaman.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2019, Fall 2020

#### 320 Statistics Communication

Statistical Communication is an important component of the capacity to "think with data." This course will integrate theoretical and practical aspects of statistics with a focus on communicating results and their implications. Students will gain experience clearly synthesizing and explaining complex data using diverse predictive and explanatory models. Learning objectives include: understanding the role of a statistician, developing communications skills, working collaboratively on group projects, designing studies to collect information, acquiring existing data resources, utilizing publications in statistics, creating reproducible research and developing oral arguments, relevant project reports, and dynamic graphical displays. Emphasis will be placed on the use of statistical software, data management, visual presentation, and oral and written communication skills that are necessary for communicating technical content.

Requisite: STAT 230 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Matheson.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 340 Epidemiology and Causal Inference

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease and health in human populations. It typically involves the analysis of multivariate observational data that pose challenges when trying to make causal conclusions. The course will focus on reasoning about cause and effect, study design, bias and missing data, models and analysis of risk, detection and classification, and modern approaches to confounding and causal inference. Topics include: Measures of disease (incidence and prevalence); Measures of association (relative risk, odds ratio, relative hazard, excess risk, attributable risk); Study designs (exposure and disease base sampling); Assessing significance in a 2x2 table; Assessing significance in a 2x2x2 table; Missing data; Introduction to confounding; Matching; Propensity score adjustment; Unmeasured confounding; Introduction to causal inference and counterfactuals; Causal graphs; and D-separation.

Requisite: STAT-230 (or PSYC 122 and PSYC 200 and consent of the instructor). Omitted 2021-22.. Professor Horton.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 375 Statistical Aspects of Competition

Competitions, which can include individual and team sports, eSports, tabletop gaming, preference formation, and elections, produce data dependent on interrelated competitors and the decision, league, or tournament format. In this course, students will learn to think about the ways a wide variety of statistical methodologies can be applied to the complex and unique data that emerge through competition, including paired comparisons, decision analysis, rank-based and kernel methods, and spatio-temporal methods. The course will focus on the statistical theory relevant to analyzing data from contests and place an emphasis on simulation and data visualization techniques. Students will develop data collection, wrangling,combination, exploration, analysis, and interpretation skills individually and in groups. Applications may include rating players and teams, assessing shot quality, animating player tracking data, roster construction, comparing alternative voting systems, developing optimal strategies for games, and predicting outcomes. Prior experience with probability such as STAT 360 may be helpful, but is not required.

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 231. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 456 Generalized Linear Models and Mixed Models

Linear regression and logistic regression are powerful tools for statistical analysis, but they are only a subset of a broader class of generalized linear models. This course will explore the theory behind and practical application of generalized linear models for responses that do not have a normal distribution, including counts, categories, and proportions. We will also delve into extensions of these models for dependent responses such as repeated measures over time.

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 360. Limited to 20 students. Spring semester. Professor Bailey.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 490 Special Topics

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 495 Advanced Data Analysis

Our world is awash in data. To allow decisions to be made based on evidence, there is a need for statisticians to be able to make sense of the data around us and communicate their findings. In this course, students will be exposed to advanced statistical methods and will undertake the analysis and interpretation of complex and real-world datasets that go beyond textbook problems. Course topics will vary from year to year depending on the instructor and selected case studies but will include static and dynamic visualization techniques to summarize and display high dimensional data, advanced topics in design and linear regression, ethics, and selected topics in data mining. Other topics may vary but might include nonparametric analysis, spatial data, and analysis of network data. Through a series of case studies, students will develop the capacity to think and compute with data, undertake and assess analyses, and effectively communicate their results using written and oral presentation.

Requisite: STAT 230, STAT 231, STAT 370, and the computing requirement; or consent of the instructor. Recommended requisite: STAT 231. Limited to 20 students. Fall semester. Professor Wagaman.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 498, 499 Senior Honors

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

### Admission & Financial Aid

#### Admission & Financial Aid

Back## Mathematics and Statistics

Professors R. Benedetto, Call, Folsom, Horton‡, and Leise; Associate Professors Ching (Chair) and Wagaman; Assistant Professors Alvarado*, Bailey, Contreras*, Correia*, Culiuc‡, Daniels, Liao, Pflueger†, and Yacoubou Djima*; Senior Lecturer D. Benedetto; Lecturer Donges and Zhang; Visiting Assistant Professors Güntürkün, Matheson, McShane, Moore, Moreno, Rasheed; Mathematics Associate Allison Tanguay.

The Department offers the major in Mathematics and the major in Statistics, as well as courses meeting a wide variety of interests in these fields. Non-majors who seek introductory courses are advised to consider MATH 105, 111, 140, and 220 and STAT 111, none of which require a background beyond high school mathematics.

**Mathematics**

*Major Program*. Mathematics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the mathematics major: MATH 111, 121, 211, 271/2, 350, or 355 (exceptions by petition to the department). Along with the required courses, a major must complete three elective courses in Mathematics numbered 135 or higher. For majors declared after May 17, 2017, at least two of these electives must be numbered 200 or higher. In addition, a major must complete two other courses, each of which is either an elective course in Mathematics numbered between 135 and 490 or a course from outside Mathematics, but in a related field, chosen from among COSC 201 or 211, 301 or 311, and 401; ECON 300, 301, 361, and 420; PHIL 350; any Physics course numbered 116 or higher (excluding PHYS 227); any Astronomy course numbered 226 or higher; and any Statistics course numbered 200 or higher. Statistics courses cross-listed with Mathematics count as Mathematics electives. The additional requirement of two courses can be satisfied by taking two math electives, one math elective and one related-fields course, or two related-fields courses. Requests for alternative courses must be approved in writing by the chair of the Department in consultation with the Mathematics faculty within the Department. Honors students may petition the department to count one math thesis course as an elective toward the major.

Students who have placed out of certain courses, such as calculus, as indicated by a strong performance on an Advanced Placement Exam or other evidence approved by the department, such as a competency exam are excused from taking those courses. Students who place out of MATH 111, 121 or 211 do not need to replace these courses. Students who place out of MATH 271, 272, 350, or 355 exam must replace each such course with an additional Mathematics course numbered 135 or higher.

A student considering a major in Mathematics should consult with a member of the Department as soon as possible, preferably during the first year. This will facilitate the arrangement of a program best suited to the student’s ability and interests. Students should also be aware that there is no single path through the major; courses do not have to be taken in numerical order (except where required by prerequisites).

All students majoring in Mathematics are encouraged to include in their program courses that include concepts and methods from data analysis, mathematical modeling, and computation (e.g., MATH 135/STAT 135, MATH 140, MATH 284, MATH 360/STAT 360, or COSC 111). Students majoring in Mathematics are expected to attend all Mathematics colloquia during their junior and senior years.

For a student considering graduate study, the Departmental Honors program is strongly recommended. Such a student is advised to take the Graduate Record Examination early in the senior year. It is also desirable to have a reading knowledge of a foreign language, usually French, German, or Russian.

*Double Majors in Mathematics and Statistics. *Students electing a double major in Mathematics and Statistics may count MATH 111, 121, 211, and MATH 271 or 272 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Statistics major may be counted towards the Mathematics major.

*Comprehensive Examination*. A comprehensive examination will be given near the beginning of the spring semester of the senior year. (Those who will complete their studies in the fall semester may elect instead to take the comprehensive examination at the beginning of that semester.) The examination covers MATH 211, MATH 271 or 272, and a choice of MATH 350 or 355. More information about the comprehensive examination, including regulations and study materials, can be found on the Department website.

*Honors Program in Mathematics*. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a qualifying examination given at the beginning of the spring semester of their junior year and the acceptance of a thesis proposal. (Those for whom the second semester of the junior year occurs in the fall may elect instead to take the qualifying examination at the beginning of that semester.) If a student is accepted to the Honors Program, they will finalize a topic in consultation with Mathematics faculty. After intensive study of this topic, the candidate will write a report in the form of a thesis which should be original in its presentation of material, if not in content. In addition, the candidate will report to the departmental colloquium on their thesis work during the senior year. Honors candidates are also required to complete MATH 345 and at least one Mathematics course numbered 400 to 489.

**Statistics**

*Major Program.* The minimum requirements for the Statistics major include MATH 111, and 121; STAT 111 or STAT 135 (STAT 135 strongly recommended); STAT 230, 231, 360, 370, and 495; two courses in Computer Science at the level of 111 or higher (typically COSC 111 and COSC 112); and two additional elective courses in Statistics at the 200 level or higher (one elective course in Statistics at the 200 level or higher is required for the class of 2021 and 2021E). Statistics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the statistics major: STAT 111/135, 230, 231, 360, 370, or 495 (exceptions by petition to the department).

Requests for alternative courses must be approved in writing by the chair of the Department in consultation with the Statistics faculty within the Department. Students who have placed out of certain courses, such as calculus, introductory statistics, or introductory computer science, as indicated by strong performance on an Advanced Placement Exam or other evidence approved by the Department, are excused from taking those courses. Statistics majors may place out of up to three courses without having to replace those courses. Students placing out of more than three courses must replace all but three of those courses with additional courses approved by the Department to complete the major.

A student considering a major in Statistics should consult with a member of the Department as soon as possible, ideally during the first year. This will facilitate the arrangement of a program best suited to the student’s ability and interests, and accommodate study away. Students should also be aware that there is no single path through the major; courses do not have to be taken in numerical order (except where required by prerequisites). Statistics majors are strongly encouraged to ensure that their course of study includes depth in an application area (e.g., astronomy, environmental studies, political science, psychology, or sociology). Students majoring in Statistics are expected to attend all Statistics colloquia during their junior and senior years. Students planning to attend graduate school in statistics are strongly advised to take MATH 211, MATH 271 or 272, MATH 355, MATH 450, and additional courses with a focus on computation and algorithmic thinking (often found in computer science).

*Double Majors in Statistics and Mathematics.* Students electing a double major in Statistics and Mathematics may count MATH 111 and 121 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Mathematics major may be counted towards the Statistics major.

*Comprehensive Evaluation*. All Statistics majors will enroll in the capstone course STAT 495 (Advanced Data Analysis). Successful completion of this course satisfies the comprehensive evaluation in Statistics for the class of 2021, 2021E, and 2022.

*Honors Program in Statistics*. For a degree with Honors, a student must have demonstrated the ability to pursue independent work fruitfully and exhibit a strong motivation to engage in research. To apply to the Honors Program, students must have an average grade of B+ or higher in Statistics 230, 231, 360, and 370. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a thesis proposal, which must be accepted by the department. More information about the Honors Program can be found on the Department website.

If a student is accepted to the Honors Program, they will finalize a topic in consultation with Statistics faculty. After intensive study of this topic, the candidate will write a report in the form of a thesis which should be original in its presentation of material, if not in content. In addition, the candidate will report to the departmental colloquium on her or his thesis work during the senior year.

Starting with the class of 2023, honors students must complete an additional course for the major. The course must be broadly related to the thesis (e.g., a statistics elective with an introduction to the topic; linear algebra for more theoretical theses; an advanced Computer Science course for more computational theses). The thesis advisor must approve the course as “related”. Mathematics and Statistics double majors should note that only one course beyond calculus can count towards both majors.

### Mathematics

#### 102 Geometry and Relativity

The course is designed for students who do not intend to major in mathematics or physics. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Jagannathan.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 105 Calculus with Algebra

MATH 105 and 106 are designed for students whose background and algebraic skills are inadequate for the fast pace of MATH 111. In addition to covering the usual material of beginning calculus, these courses will have an extensive review of algebra and trigonometry. There will be a special emphasis on solving word problems.

MATH 105 starts with a quick review of algebraic manipulations, inequalities, absolute values and straight lines. Then the basic ideas of calculus—limits, derivatives, and integrals—are introduced, but only in the context of polynomial and rational functions. As various applications are studied, the algebraic techniques involved will be reviewed in more detail. When covering related rates and maximum-minimum problems, time will be spent learning how to approach, analyze and solve word problems. Four class meetings per week, one of which is a two-hour group-work day.

Note: While MATH 105 and 106 are sufficient for any course with a MATH 111 requisite, MATH 105 alone is not. However, students who plan to take MATH 121 should consider taking MATH 105 and then MATH 111, rather than MATH 106. Students cannot register for both MATH 105 and CHEM 151 in the same semester.

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 106 Calculus with Elementary Functions

MATH 106 is a continuation of MATH 105. Trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions will be studied from the point of view of both algebra and calculus. The applications encountered in MATH 105 will reappear in problems involving these new functions. The basic ideas and theorems of calculus will be reviewed in detail, with more attention being paid to rigor.

Requisite: MATH 105. Spring semester. Professor D. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 111 Introduction to the Calculus

Basic concepts of limits, derivatives, anti-derivatives; applications, including max/min problems and related rates; the definite integral, simple applications; trigonometric functions; logarithms and exponential functions. Four class hours per week.

Limited to 30 students per section. Fall and spring semesters. In the fall semester, the intensive section (Section 01) is open only to students listed as eligible on the Mathematics placement list. The intensive section replaces one weekly class hour with a 90-to-120-minute group work day. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 121 Intermediate Calculus

A continuation of MATH 111. Inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions; methods of integration, both exact and approximate; applications of integration to volume and arc length; improper integrals; l’Hôpital’s rule; infinite series, power series and the Taylor development; and polar coordinates. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 111 or placement into MATH 121 or consent of the Department. Limited to 30 students per section. Fall and spring semesters.The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 140 Mathematical Modeling

Mathematical modeling is the process of translating a real world problem into a mathematical expression, analyzing it using mathematical tools and numerical simulations, and then interpreting the results in the context of the original problem. Discussion of basic modeling principles and case studies will be followed by several projects from areas including biology and the social sciences (e.g., flocking and schooling behavior, disease spread in populations, generation of artificial societies). This course has no requisites; projects will be tailored to each student’s level of mathematical preparation. Four class hours per week, with occasional in-class computer labs.

Limited to 24 students. Spring semester. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2012, Fall 2014, Spring 2016, Fall 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 142 Mathematical Modeling with Environmental Applications

Mathematical modeling is used by scientists to understand the dynamics of a system, make predictions and inform policy. It involves an iterative process of translating a real world problem into a mathematical expression, analyzing it using mathematical tools and numerical simulations, and interpreting the results. This course covers systems thinking and the principles of mathematical modeling in the context of environmental problems. Group projects will be centered on current environmental research questions. Contributions to the projects will be tailored to each student’s level of mathematical preparation and interest. Four class hours per week.

Limited to 24 students. This course and Math 140 cannot both be counted towards the Mathematics major. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 150 Voting and Elections: A Mathematical Perspective

The outcomes of many elections, whether to elect the next United States president or to rank college football teams, can displease many of the voters. How can perfectly fair elections produce results that nobody likes? We will analyze different voting systems, including majority rule, plurality rule, Borda count, and approval voting, and assess a voter’s power to influence the election under each system, for example, by calculating the Banzhaf power index. We will prove Arrow’s Theorem and discuss its implications. After exploring the pitfalls of various voting systems through both theoretical analysis and case studies, we will try to answer some pressing questions: Which voting system best reflects the will of the voters? Which is least susceptible to manipulation? What properties should we seek in a voting system, and how can we best attain them?

Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 211 Multivariable Calculus

Elementary vector calculus; introduction to partial derivatives; multiple integrals in two and three dimensions; line integrals in the plane; Green’s theorem; the Taylor development and extrema of functions of several variables; implicit function theorems; Jacobians. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 121 or placement into MATH 211 or consent of the Department. Limited to 30 students per section. Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 220 Mathematical Reasoning and Proof

This course serves as an introduction to mathematical reasoning and pays particular attention to helping students learn how to write proofs. The topics covered may include logic, elementary set theory, functions, relations and equivalence relations, mathematical induction, sequences, and quantifiers. Additional topics may vary from semester to semester. Four class hours per week.

Limited to 25 students. Spring and fall semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Fractal Geometry

This course is a mathematical treatment of fractal geometry, a field of mathematics partly developed by Benoit Mandelbrot (1924–2010) that continues to be actively researched in the present day. Fractal geometry is a mathematical examination of the concepts of self-similarity, fractals, and chaos, and their applications to the modeling of natural phenomena. In particular, we will develop the iterated function system (IFS) method for describing fractals, examine Julia sets, Mandelbrot sets, and study the concept of fractal dimension, among other things. Through the teaching of these concepts, the course will also lend itself to familiarizing students with some of the formalisms and rigor of mathematical proofs.

Requisite: MATH 211 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 35 students. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 250 Number Theory

An introduction to the theory of rational integers; divisibility, the unique factorization theorem; congruences, quadratic residues. Selections from the following topics: cryptology; Diophantine equations; asymptotic prime number estimates; continued fractions; algebraic integers. Four class hours per week. Offered in alternate years.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Fall semester. Professor Call.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2010, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 252 Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography

Many security problems arise when two computers must communicate on a channel with eavesdroppers or malicious attackers. Public-key cryptography applies ideas from number theory and abstract algebra to address these problems. This course concerns the mathematical theory and algorithms needed to construct the most commonly-used public-key ciphers and digital signature schemes, as well as the attacks that must be anticipated when designing such systems. Several topics from number theory, abstract algebra, and algorithms will be introduced, including discrete logarithms, integer factorization algorithms, and elliptic curves. Depending on time and student interest, we may cover some newer systems that are believed to be secure against attacks by quantum computers but not yet commonly implemented in practice. Students will write short programs to implement the systems and to break badly implemented systems. No prior programming experience is expected; basic aspects of programming in Python will be taught in class. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: Experience writing proofs, such as MATH 220/221 or 271/272, or consent of the instructor. Spring semester. Professor Pflueger.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 255 Geometry

About 2300 years ago, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method to mathematics in his geometry textbook, the *Elements*. In this book, Euclid deduced the theorems of geometry from a small number of simple axioms about points, lines, and circles. Among his axioms is the parallel axiom, which asserts that if we are given a line and a point not on the line, then there is a unique line through the given point that is parallel to the given line.

Over 2000 years after Euclid, mathematicians discovered that by replacing Euclid's parallel axiom with its negation, we can develop a different kind of geometry in which we still have geometric objects like triangles and circles, but many of the theorems and formulas are different. For example, the sum of the angles of a triangle will always be less than 180 degrees, and this sum will determine the area of the triangle.

In this course we will study both Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry. We will also consider the fascinating history of how non-Euclidean geometry was discovered. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 121. Spring semester. Professor Contreras.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2011, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020, Spring 2022

#### 260 Differential Equations

The study of differential equations is an important part of mathematics that involves many topics, both theoretical and practical. The course will cover first- and second-order ordinary differential equations, basic theorems concerning existence and uniqueness of solutions and continuous dependence on parameters, long-term behavior of solutions and approximate solutions. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Spring semester. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2023

#### 271 Linear Algebra

The study of vector spaces over the real and complex numbers, introducing the concepts of subspace, linear independence, basis, and dimension; systems of linear equations and their solution by Gaussian elimination; matrix operations; linear transformations and their representations by matrices; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; and inner product spaces. MATH 271 will feature both proofs and applications, with special attention paid to the theoretical development of the subject. Four class meetings per week.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. This course and MATH 272 may not both be taken for credit. Limited to 25 students. Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 272 Linear Algebra with Applications

The study of vector spaces over the real and complex numbers, introducing the concepts of subspace, linear independence, basis, and dimension; systems of linear equations and their solution by Gaussian elimination; matrix operations; linear transformations and their representations by matrices; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; and inner product spaces. This course will feature both proofs and applications, with special attention paid to applied topics such as least squares and singular value decomposition. Four class hours per week, with occasional in-class computer labs.

Requisite: MATH 121 or consent of the instructor. This course and MATH 271 may not both be taken for credit. Limited to 25 students. Fall and Spring semester: The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022, Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2022, Fall 2023, Spring 2024

#### 275 A Second Course in Linear Algebra

This course is a continuation of the material in MATH 271 and 272, providing more insight into abstract vector spaces and operator theory. Topics may include least squares estimates, singular value decompositions, Jordan canonical forms, inner product spaces, linear functionals and duals, orthogonal polynomials, vector and matrix norms, the spectral theorem, eigenvalue inequalities, and error-correcting codes. Time permitting, applications to graph theory and discrete dynamical systems may be explored. Four class hours per week.

Requisites: MATH 271, MATH 272, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 280 Graph Theory

A graph is a collection of points with edges drawn between them. Graph theory was first introduced by Leonhard Euler in his solution to the Königsberg bridge problem in 1736. Since then, graph theory has become an active area of study in mathematics due both to its wide array of real life applications in biology, chemistry, social sciences and computer networking, and to its interactions with other branches of mathematics.

The course will start with an overview of the fundamental concepts and general results in graph theory, followed by explorations of a variety of topics in graph theory and their applications, including: connectivity, planar graphs, directed graphs, greedy algorithms, matchings, vertex and edge colorings. The course will end with the introduction of a more advanced topic. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 271 or 272 or consent of the instructor. MATH 220 or other prior experience with mathematical proofs is recommended. Limited to 30 students. Spring Semester. Professor R. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 281 Combinatorics

This course emphasizes enumerative combinatorics, a classical subject in mathematics related to the theory of counting. Problems in this area often pertain to finding the number of possible arrangements of a set of objects under some particular constraints. This course incorporates a wide set of problems involving enumerative combinatorics, as well as theory and applications. Topics include the sum and product rules; combinations and permutations; binomial and multinomial coefficients; the principle of inclusion and exclusion; generating functions; recurrence relations; Catalan, Stirling, Bell and Eulerian numbers; partitions; tableaux; and stable marriage. Additional topics may vary.

Requisite: MATH 121, and MATH 220 or other prior experience with basic mathematical proof techniques (e.g., induction) by consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Fall 2021

#### 284 Numerical Analysis

This course will study numerical techniques for a variety of problems, such as finding roots of polynomials, interpolation, numerical integration, numerical solutions of differential equations, and matrix computations. We will study the underlying theory behind the algorithms, including error analysis, and the algorithms will be implemented using mathematical software to facilitate numerical experimentation.

Requisite: MATH 211 and either 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2021

#### 294 Optimization

Optimization is a branch of applied mathematics focused on algorithms to determine maxima and minima of functions, often under constraints. Applications range from economics and finance to machine learning and information retrieval. This course will first develop advanced linear algebra tools, and then will study methods of convex optimization. Possible topics include linear, quadratic, second-order cone, and semidefinite models. Several applications will be explored, and algorithms will be implemented using mathematical software to aid numerical experimentation.

Requisite: MATH 211 and 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Limited to 30 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017

#### 310 Introduction to the Theory of Partitions

The theory of partitions is a fundamental branch of combinatorics and number theory pertaining to enumerative properties and patterns of the integers. With its mathematical origins tracing back to the seventeenth century, partition theory has evolved through contributions made by many influential mathematicians including Euler, Legendre, Hardy, Ramanujan, Selberg and Dyson, and continues to be an active area of study today. Topics include partition identities and bijections, Ferrers diagrams and Durfee squares, partition generating functions and q-series, the pentagonal number theorem, q-binomial numbers (Gaussian polynomials), and partition congruences.

Requisite: MATH 121 and 220, or other significant experience with proofs, or by consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2021

#### 320 Wavelet and Fourier Analysis

The first half of the course covers continuous and discrete Fourier transforms (including convolution and Plancherel’s formula), Fourier series (including convergence and the fast Fourier transform algorithm), and applications like heat conduction along a rod and signal processing. The second half of the course is devoted to wavelets: Haar bases, the discrete Haar transform in 1 and 2 dimensions with application to image analysis, multiresolution analysis, filters, and wavelet-based image compression like JPEG2000. Three class hours per week plus a weekly one-hour computer laboratory.

Requisite: MATH 211 and 271 or 272. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2009, Fall 2011, Fall 2013, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2019

#### 333 The Structure of Networks

Network structures and network dynamics are a fundamental modern tool for modeling a broad range of problems from fields like economics, biology, physics, and sociology. Mathematical and machine learning techniques can be used to reveal underlying network structures. The course will use graphs (sets of nodes connected by edges) as a common language to describe networks and their properties. On the theoretical side, the course will cover topics such as basic probability, degree distribution, spectral graph theory (adjacency matrix, graph Laplacian), diffusion geometries, and random graph models. Applications will range over topics such as epidemics, marketing, prediction of new links in a social network, and game theory. The course will also include hands-on experiments and simulations. Three class meetings per week.

Requisite: MATH 271 or MATH 272 or instructor's permission. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 345 Functions of a Complex Variable

An introduction to analytic functions; complex numbers, derivatives, conformal mappings, integrals. Cauchy’s theorem; power series, singularities, Laurent series, analytic continuation; Riemann surfaces; special functions. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 and prior experience with mathematical proofs, or consent of the instructor. Fall semester. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 350 Groups, Rings, and Fields

A brief consideration of properties of sets, mappings, and the system of integers, followed by an introduction to the theory of groups and rings including the principal theorems on homomorphisms and the related quotient structures; integral domains, fields, polynomial rings. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 and either MATH 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Students with a grade of B+ or lower in linear algebra are encouraged to take another 200-level course with proofs before taking MATH 350.

Limited to 25 students. Fall semester: Professor R. Benedetto. Spring semester: Professor Daniels.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 355 Introduction to Analysis

Completeness of the real numbers; topology of n-space including the Bolzano-Weierstrass and Heine-Borel theorems; sequences, properties of continuous functions on sets; infinite series, uniform convergence. The course may also study the Gamma function, Stirling’s formula, or Fourier series. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 211 and either MATH 271 or 272, or consent of the instructor. Students with a grade of B+ or lower in linear algebra are encouraged to take another 200-level course with proofs before taking MATH 355.

Limited to 25 students. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 365 Stochastic Processes

A stochastic process is a collection of random variables used to model the evolution of a system over time. Unlike deterministic systems, stochastic processes involve an element of randomness or uncertainty. Examples include stock market fluctuations, audio signals, EEG recordings, and random movement such as Brownian motion and random walks. Topics will include Markov chains, martingales, Brownian motion, and stochastic integration, including Ito’s formula. Four class hours per week, with weekly in-class computer labs.

Requisite: MATH 360 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Spring 2022

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 372 Real Analysis in Higher Dimensions

This course builds upon the material in MATH 355 (Introduction to Analysis) in order to rigorously develop basic tools for studying functions of more than one real variable. While the setting in MATH 355 is the real number line, the context for this course will be the n-dimensional Euclidean space. Many facets of analysis on this n-dimensional space will be explored including its topological properties as well as differentiation and Riemann integration in n-variables. The course will cover fundamental results such as the celebrated implicit and inverse function theorems. Time permitting, we may discuss additional topics such as analysis on metric spaces. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 355 and either MATH 271 or 272; or consent of the instructor. Limited to 25 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 385 Mathematical Logic

Mathematicians confirm their answers to mathematical questions by writing proofs. But what, exactly, is a proof? This course begins with a precise definition specifying what counts as a mathematical proof. This definition makes it possible to carry out a mathematical study of what can be accomplished by means of deductive reasoning and, perhaps more interestingly, what cannot be accomplished. Topics will include the propositional and predicate calculi, completeness, compactness, and decidability. At the end of the course we will study Gödel’s famous Incompleteness Theorem, which shows that there are statements about the positive integers that are true but impossible to prove. Four class hours per week. Offered in alternate years.

Requisite: MATH 220, 271, 272, or 355, or consent of the instructor. Spring semester. Professor Ching.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 390, 490 Special Topics

Independent reading course.

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 410 Galois Theory

The quadratic formula shows us that the roots of a quadratic polynomial possess a certain symmetry. Galois Theory is the study of the corresponding symmetry for higher degree polynomials. We will develop this theory starting from a basic knowledge of groups, rings, and fields. One of our main goals will be to prove that there is no general version of the quadratic formula for a polynomial of degree five or more. Along the way, we will also show that a circular cake can be divided into 17 (but not 7) equal slices using only a straight-edged knife.

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2013, Spring 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2019

#### 415 Introduction to Commutative Algebra

Commutative algebra is known as the study of commutative rings and their ideals and modules. Besides being an important branch of algebra for its own sake, commutative algebra has strong ties to other areas, such as algebraic geometry and algebraic number theory, as it provides essential tools for them. This course is an introductory course in commutative algebra. We will explore more about rings (especially polynomial rings) and ideals, which are taught in Math 350. We will also introduce another important algebraic structure, namely modules over rings. Other fundamental topics include Noetherian rings, The Hilbert Basis Theorem, Gröbner bases, localization, primary decompositions, and tensor products.

Requisite: Math 350 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Visiting Assistant Professor Gunturkun.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2021

#### 420 The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

An elliptic curve is the set of zeros of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, it is natural to ask for a description of those zeros whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. Our study of elliptic curves will focus on this fundamental problem and reveal a fascinating interplay between algebra, geometry, analysis and number theory. Topics discussed will include the geometry and group structure of elliptic curves, the Nagell-Lutz Theorem describing points of finite order, and the Mordell-Weil theorem on the finite generation of the group of rational points. Additional topics may include elliptic curve cryptography, Lenstra's algorithm using elliptic curves to factor large integers, the Thue-Siegel Theorem on the finiteness of the set of integer points, and the crucial role the theory of elliptic curves played in Wiles' proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. By bringing together techniques from a wide range of mathematical disciplines, we plan to illustrate the unity of mathematics and introduce active areas of research. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 450 Measure Theory and Integration

An introduction to Lebesgue measure and integration; topology of the real numbers; inner and outer measures and measurable set; the approximation of continuous and measurable functions; the Lebesgue integral and associated convergence theorems; the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Four class hours per week.

Requisite: MATH 355. Professor R. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 455 Topology

An introduction to general topology: the topology of Euclidean, metric and abstract spaces, with emphasis on such notions as continuous mappings, compactness, connectedness, completeness, separable spaces, separation axioms, and metrizable spaces. Additional topics may be selected to illustrate applications of topology in analysis or to introduce the student briefly to algebraic topology. Four class hours per week. Offered in alternate years.

Requisite: MATH 355. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 460 Analytic Number Theory

This course is an introduction to Analytic Number Theory, a foundational subject in mathematics which dates back to the 1800s and is still a major research area today. The subject generally uses tools and techniques which are analytic in nature to solve problems primarily related to integers. Asymptotic and summation results and methods are of great significance in Analytic Number Theory. Two primary course objectives are to state and prove two major theorems: Dirichlet's Theorem on Primes in Arithmetic Progressions, and the Prime Number Theorem. In particular, we will study Selberg's "elementary" proof of the Prime Number Theorem, as well as an analytic proof. Additional topics may include: arithmetic functions, especially their averages, their asymptotics, and related summation formulae; Dirichlet convolutions; characters and Gauss sums; and an introduction to Dirichlet series, such as the Riemann zeta-function and L-functions. Further topics may vary.

Requisite: At least two among MATH 345, MATH 350, and MATH 355, with MATH 345 preferred; or by consent of the instructor. Prior experience with number theory, such as MATH 250, may be helpful but is not required. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2018, Fall 2020

#### 498, 499 Senior Departmental Honors

Open to seniors with the consent of the Department. Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

### Statistics

#### 108 Statistical Ethics and Institutions

(Offered as STAT 108 and ECON 108) This course will provide a rigorous presentation of fundamental statistical principles and ethics. We will discuss standards for relationships between statisticians and policymakers, researchers, the press, and other institutions, as well as the standards for interactions between statisticians and their employers/clients, colleagues and research subjects. The course will explore how the interplay of institutions (e.g., organizations, systems, laws, codes of professional ethics) and the broader sociopolitical culture affect the production of reliable, high quality statistics. Students will also explore the implications of statistical principles and ethics for the operation of national, regional, and international official statistical systems. In addition, we will investigate the proper place of official statistics within a government system that operates with separate branches. Students will gain a strong foundation in international statistical principles and professional ethics as well as an understanding and the tools to assess the quality of the statistics they use. The course is designed to make students responsible and effective supporters of reliable, high quality statistics in their professions. Students will particularly learn how to assess the quality of official statistics produced by governments and how to identify areas for improvement. Examples, case studies, readings from statistical practice, and discussion will provide a full appreciation of real world applications. The course is also intended for non-majors interested in an introduction to quantitative social science and the use of data in public policy.

Limited to 30 students. Visiting Scholar Andreas Georgiou.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2021

#### 111 Introduction to Statistics

Introduction to Statistics provides a basic foundation in descriptive and inferential statistics, including constructing models from data. Students will learn to think critically about data, produce meaningful graphical and numerical summaries of data, apply basic probability models, and utilize statistical inference procedures using computational tools. Topics include basic descriptive and inferential statistics, visualization, study design, and multiple regression. Students who have taken a semester of calculus (MATH 111 or higher, or equivalent placement) or who are planning to major in statistics should take STAT 135/MATH 135 instead of this course. (Students who have taken STAT/MATH 135, PSYC 122, or ECON 360/361 may not also receive credit for STAT 111, and STAT 111 does not count towards the major in Mathematics.)

Limited to 24 students per section. Permission with consent of the instructor. Fall semester. Professor Matheson.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Nonparametric Statistics

This course is an introduction to nonparametric and distribution-free statistical procedures and techniques. These methods rely heavily on counting and ranking techniques and will be explored through both theoretical and applied perspectives. One- and two-sample procedures will provide students with alternatives to traditional parametric procedures, such as the t-test. We will also investigate correlation and regression in a nonparametric setting. A variety of other topics may be explored in the nonparametric setting including resampling techniques (for example, bootstrapping), categorical data and contingency tables, density estimation, and the one-way and two-way layouts for analysis of variance. The course will emphasize data analysis (with appropriate use of statistical software) and the intuitive nature of nonparametric statistics.

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135. Limited to 24 students. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 230 Intermediate Statistics

This course is an intermediate applied statistics course that builds on the statistical data analysis methods introduced in STAT 111 or STAT 135. Students will learn how to pose a statistical question, perform appropriate statistical analysis of the data, and properly interpret and communicate their results. Emphasis will be placed on the use of statistical software, data wrangling, model fitting, and assessment. Topics covered will include ethics, experimental design, resampling approaches, analysis of variance models, multiple regression, model selection, and logistic regression. No prior experience with statistical software is expected

Requisite: STAT 111 or 135. Limited to 24 students. Four spots reserved for incoming first-year students in each Fall section. Fall and Spring semester. Fall Professor Liao, Spring Professor Liao, Professor Matheson

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2012, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 231 Data Science

Computational data analysis is an essential part of modern statistics and data science. This course provides a practical foundation for students to think with data by participating in the entire data analysis cycle. Students will generate statistical questions and then address them through data acquisition, cleaning, transforming, modeling, and interpretation. This course will introduce students to tools for data management, wrangling, and databases that are common in data science and will apply those tools to real-world applications. Students will undertake practical analyses of large, complex, and messy data sets leveraging modern computing tools

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135 and COSC 111 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall and Spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 240 Multivariate Data Analysis

Making sense of a complex, high-dimensional data set is not an easy task. The analysis chosen is ultimately based on the research question(s) being asked. This course will explore how to visualize and extract meaning from large data sets through a variety of analytical methods. Methods covered include principal components analysis and selected statistical and machine learning techniques, both supervised (e.g. classification trees and random forests) and unsupervised (e.g. clustering). Additional methods covered may include factor analysis, dimension reduction methods, or network analysis at instructor discretion. This course will feature hands-on data analysis with statistical software, emphasizing application over theory.

The course is expected to include small group work, interactive labs, peer interactions such as peer review and short presentations, and a personal project, to foster student engagement in the course and with each other.

Requisite: STAT 111 or 135. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Wagaman.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2019, Fall 2020

#### 320 Statistics Communication

Statistical Communication is an important component of the capacity to "think with data." This course will integrate theoretical and practical aspects of statistics with a focus on communicating results and their implications. Students will gain experience clearly synthesizing and explaining complex data using diverse predictive and explanatory models. Learning objectives include: understanding the role of a statistician, developing communications skills, working collaboratively on group projects, designing studies to collect information, acquiring existing data resources, utilizing publications in statistics, creating reproducible research and developing oral arguments, relevant project reports, and dynamic graphical displays. Emphasis will be placed on the use of statistical software, data management, visual presentation, and oral and written communication skills that are necessary for communicating technical content.

Requisite: STAT 230 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Matheson.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 340 Epidemiology and Causal Inference

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease and health in human populations. It typically involves the analysis of multivariate observational data that pose challenges when trying to make causal conclusions. The course will focus on reasoning about cause and effect, study design, bias and missing data, models and analysis of risk, detection and classification, and modern approaches to confounding and causal inference. Topics include: Measures of disease (incidence and prevalence); Measures of association (relative risk, odds ratio, relative hazard, excess risk, attributable risk); Study designs (exposure and disease base sampling); Assessing significance in a 2x2 table; Assessing significance in a 2x2x2 table; Missing data; Introduction to confounding; Matching; Propensity score adjustment; Unmeasured confounding; Introduction to causal inference and counterfactuals; Causal graphs; and D-separation.

Requisite: STAT-230 (or PSYC 122 and PSYC 200 and consent of the instructor). Omitted 2021-22.. Professor Horton.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 375 Statistical Aspects of Competition

Competitions, which can include individual and team sports, eSports, tabletop gaming, preference formation, and elections, produce data dependent on interrelated competitors and the decision, league, or tournament format. In this course, students will learn to think about the ways a wide variety of statistical methodologies can be applied to the complex and unique data that emerge through competition, including paired comparisons, decision analysis, rank-based and kernel methods, and spatio-temporal methods. The course will focus on the statistical theory relevant to analyzing data from contests and place an emphasis on simulation and data visualization techniques. Students will develop data collection, wrangling,combination, exploration, analysis, and interpretation skills individually and in groups. Applications may include rating players and teams, assessing shot quality, animating player tracking data, roster construction, comparing alternative voting systems, developing optimal strategies for games, and predicting outcomes. Prior experience with probability such as STAT 360 may be helpful, but is not required.

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 231. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 456 Generalized Linear Models and Mixed Models

Linear regression and logistic regression are powerful tools for statistical analysis, but they are only a subset of a broader class of generalized linear models. This course will explore the theory behind and practical application of generalized linear models for responses that do not have a normal distribution, including counts, categories, and proportions. We will also delve into extensions of these models for dependent responses such as repeated measures over time.

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 360. Limited to 20 students. Spring semester. Professor Bailey.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 490 Special Topics

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 495 Advanced Data Analysis

Our world is awash in data. To allow decisions to be made based on evidence, there is a need for statisticians to be able to make sense of the data around us and communicate their findings. In this course, students will be exposed to advanced statistical methods and will undertake the analysis and interpretation of complex and real-world datasets that go beyond textbook problems. Course topics will vary from year to year depending on the instructor and selected case studies but will include static and dynamic visualization techniques to summarize and display high dimensional data, advanced topics in design and linear regression, ethics, and selected topics in data mining. Other topics may vary but might include nonparametric analysis, spatial data, and analysis of network data. Through a series of case studies, students will develop the capacity to think and compute with data, undertake and assess analyses, and effectively communicate their results using written and oral presentation.

Requisite: STAT 230, STAT 231, STAT 370, and the computing requirement; or consent of the instructor. Recommended requisite: STAT 231. Limited to 20 students. Fall semester. Professor Wagaman.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 498, 499 Senior Honors

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

### Regulations & Requirements

#### Regulations & Requirements

Back- General Regulations
- Terms and Vacations
- Conduct
- Attendance at College Exercises
- Records and Reports
- Pass/Fail Option
- Examinations and Extensions
- Withdrawals
- Readmission
- Deficiencies
- Housing and Meal Plans
- Degree Requirements
- Course Requirements
- The Liberal Studies Curriculum
- The Major Requirement
- Departmental Majors
- Interdisciplinary Majors
- Comprehensive Requirement
- Degree with Honors
- Independent Scholar Program
- Field Study
- Five College Courses
- Academic Credit from Other Institutions
- Cooperative Doctor of Philosophy
- Engineering Exchange Program with Dartmouth

## Mathematics and Statistics

**Mathematics**

*Major Program*. Mathematics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the mathematics major: MATH 111, 121, 211, 271/2, 350, or 355 (exceptions by petition to the department). Along with the required courses, a major must complete three elective courses in Mathematics numbered 135 or higher. For majors declared after May 17, 2017, at least two of these electives must be numbered 200 or higher. In addition, a major must complete two other courses, each of which is either an elective course in Mathematics numbered between 135 and 490 or a course from outside Mathematics, but in a related field, chosen from among COSC 201 or 211, 301 or 311, and 401; ECON 300, 301, 361, and 420; PHIL 350; any Physics course numbered 116 or higher (excluding PHYS 227); any Astronomy course numbered 226 or higher; and any Statistics course numbered 200 or higher. Statistics courses cross-listed with Mathematics count as Mathematics electives. The additional requirement of two courses can be satisfied by taking two math electives, one math elective and one related-fields course, or two related-fields courses. Requests for alternative courses must be approved in writing by the chair of the Department in consultation with the Mathematics faculty within the Department. Honors students may petition the department to count one math thesis course as an elective toward the major.

*Double Majors in Mathematics and Statistics. *Students electing a double major in Mathematics and Statistics may count MATH 111, 121, 211, and MATH 271 or 272 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Statistics major may be counted towards the Mathematics major.

*Comprehensive Examination*. A comprehensive examination will be given near the beginning of the spring semester of the senior year. (Those who will complete their studies in the fall semester may elect instead to take the comprehensive examination at the beginning of that semester.) The examination covers MATH 211, MATH 271 or 272, and a choice of MATH 350 or 355. More information about the comprehensive examination, including regulations and study materials, can be found on the Department website.

*Honors Program in Mathematics*. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a qualifying examination given at the beginning of the spring semester of their junior year and the acceptance of a thesis proposal. (Those for whom the second semester of the junior year occurs in the fall may elect instead to take the qualifying examination at the beginning of that semester.) If a student is accepted to the Honors Program, they will finalize a topic in consultation with Mathematics faculty. After intensive study of this topic, the candidate will write a report in the form of a thesis which should be original in its presentation of material, if not in content. In addition, the candidate will report to the departmental colloquium on their thesis work during the senior year. Honors candidates are also required to complete MATH 345 and at least one Mathematics course numbered 400 to 489.

**Statistics**

*Major Program.* The minimum requirements for the Statistics major include MATH 111, and 121; STAT 111 or STAT 135 (STAT 135 strongly recommended); STAT 230, 231, 360, 370, and 495; two courses in Computer Science at the level of 111 or higher (typically COSC 111 and COSC 112); and two additional elective courses in Statistics at the 200 level or higher (one elective course in Statistics at the 200 level or higher is required for the class of 2021 and 2021E). Statistics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the statistics major: STAT 111/135, 230, 231, 360, 370, or 495 (exceptions by petition to the department).

*Double Majors in Statistics and Mathematics.* Students electing a double major in Statistics and Mathematics may count MATH 111 and 121 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Mathematics major may be counted towards the Statistics major.

*Comprehensive Evaluation*. All Statistics majors will enroll in the capstone course STAT 495 (Advanced Data Analysis). Successful completion of this course satisfies the comprehensive evaluation in Statistics for the class of 2021, 2021E, and 2022.

*Honors Program in Statistics*. For a degree with Honors, a student must have demonstrated the ability to pursue independent work fruitfully and exhibit a strong motivation to engage in research. To apply to the Honors Program, students must have an average grade of B+ or higher in Statistics 230, 231, 360, and 370. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a thesis proposal, which must be accepted by the department. More information about the Honors Program can be found on the Department website.

### Mathematics

#### 102 Geometry and Relativity

The course is designed for students who do not intend to major in mathematics or physics. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Jagannathan.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 105 Calculus with Algebra

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 106 Calculus with Elementary Functions

Requisite: MATH 105. Spring semester. Professor D. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 111 Introduction to the Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 121 Intermediate Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 140 Mathematical Modeling

Limited to 24 students. Spring semester. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2012, Fall 2014, Spring 2016, Fall 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 142 Mathematical Modeling with Environmental Applications

Limited to 24 students. This course and Math 140 cannot both be counted towards the Mathematics major. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 150 Voting and Elections: A Mathematical Perspective

Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 211 Multivariable Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 220 Mathematical Reasoning and Proof

Limited to 25 students. Spring and fall semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Fractal Geometry

Requisite: MATH 211 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 35 students. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 250 Number Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2010, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 252 Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 255 Geometry

*Elements*. In this book, Euclid deduced the theorems of geometry from a small number of simple axioms about points, lines, and circles. Among his axioms is the parallel axiom, which asserts that if we are given a line and a point not on the line, then there is a unique line through the given point that is parallel to the given line.

Requisite: MATH 121. Spring semester. Professor Contreras.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2011, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020, Spring 2022

#### 260 Differential Equations

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2023

#### 271 Linear Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 272 Linear Algebra with Applications

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022, Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2022, Fall 2023, Spring 2024

#### 275 A Second Course in Linear Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 280 Graph Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 281 Combinatorics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Fall 2021

#### 284 Numerical Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2021

#### 294 Optimization

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017

#### 310 Introduction to the Theory of Partitions

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2021

#### 320 Wavelet and Fourier Analysis

Requisite: MATH 211 and 271 or 272. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2009, Fall 2011, Fall 2013, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2019

#### 333 The Structure of Networks

Requisite: MATH 271 or MATH 272 or instructor's permission. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 345 Functions of a Complex Variable

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 350 Groups, Rings, and Fields

Limited to 25 students. Fall semester: Professor R. Benedetto. Spring semester: Professor Daniels.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 355 Introduction to Analysis

Limited to 25 students. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 365 Stochastic Processes

Requisite: MATH 360 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Spring 2022

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 372 Real Analysis in Higher Dimensions

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 385 Mathematical Logic

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 390, 490 Special Topics

Independent reading course.

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 410 Galois Theory

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2013, Spring 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2019

#### 415 Introduction to Commutative Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2021

#### 420 The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 450 Measure Theory and Integration

Requisite: MATH 355. Professor R. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 455 Topology

Requisite: MATH 355. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 460 Analytic Number Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2018, Fall 2020

#### 498, 499 Senior Departmental Honors

Open to seniors with the consent of the Department. Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

### Statistics

#### 108 Statistical Ethics and Institutions

Limited to 30 students. Visiting Scholar Andreas Georgiou.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2021

#### 111 Introduction to Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Nonparametric Statistics

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135. Limited to 24 students. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 230 Intermediate Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2012, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 231 Data Science

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 240 Multivariate Data Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2019, Fall 2020

#### 320 Statistics Communication

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 340 Epidemiology and Causal Inference

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 375 Statistical Aspects of Competition

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 231. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 456 Generalized Linear Models and Mixed Models

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 360. Limited to 20 students. Spring semester. Professor Bailey.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 490 Special Topics

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 495 Advanced Data Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 498, 499 Senior Honors

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

### Amherst College Courses

#### Amherst College Courses

Back- American Studies
- Anthropology and Sociology
- Architectural Studies
- Art and the History of Art
- Asian Languages and Civilizations
- Biochemistry and Biophysics
- Biology
- Black Studies
- Chemistry
- Classics
- Colloquia
- Computer Science
- Creative Writing
- Economics
- Educational Studies
- English
- Environmental Studies
- European Studies
- Film and Media Studies
- First Year Seminar
- French
- Geology
- German
- History
- Latinx and Latin American Studies
- Law, Jurisprudence, and Social Thought
- Mathematics and Statistics
- Mellon Seminar
- Music
- Neuroscience
- Philosophy
- Physics and Astronomy
- Political Science
- Psychology
- Religion
- Russian
- Sexuality Wmn's & Gndr Studies
- Spanish
- Theater and Dance
- Courses of Instruction
- 01- Bruss Seminar
- 02- Kenan Colloquium
- 03- Linguistics
- 04- Mellon Seminar
- 05- Physical Education
- 06- Premedical Studies
- 07- Teaching
- 08- Five College Dance

## Mathematics and Statistics

**Mathematics**

*Major Program*. Mathematics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the mathematics major: MATH 111, 121, 211, 271/2, 350, or 355 (exceptions by petition to the department). Along with the required courses, a major must complete three elective courses in Mathematics numbered 135 or higher. For majors declared after May 17, 2017, at least two of these electives must be numbered 200 or higher. In addition, a major must complete two other courses, each of which is either an elective course in Mathematics numbered between 135 and 490 or a course from outside Mathematics, but in a related field, chosen from among COSC 201 or 211, 301 or 311, and 401; ECON 300, 301, 361, and 420; PHIL 350; any Physics course numbered 116 or higher (excluding PHYS 227); any Astronomy course numbered 226 or higher; and any Statistics course numbered 200 or higher. Statistics courses cross-listed with Mathematics count as Mathematics electives. The additional requirement of two courses can be satisfied by taking two math electives, one math elective and one related-fields course, or two related-fields courses. Requests for alternative courses must be approved in writing by the chair of the Department in consultation with the Mathematics faculty within the Department. Honors students may petition the department to count one math thesis course as an elective toward the major.

*Double Majors in Mathematics and Statistics. *Students electing a double major in Mathematics and Statistics may count MATH 111, 121, 211, and MATH 271 or 272 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Statistics major may be counted towards the Mathematics major.

*Comprehensive Examination*. A comprehensive examination will be given near the beginning of the spring semester of the senior year. (Those who will complete their studies in the fall semester may elect instead to take the comprehensive examination at the beginning of that semester.) The examination covers MATH 211, MATH 271 or 272, and a choice of MATH 350 or 355. More information about the comprehensive examination, including regulations and study materials, can be found on the Department website.

*Honors Program in Mathematics*. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a qualifying examination given at the beginning of the spring semester of their junior year and the acceptance of a thesis proposal. (Those for whom the second semester of the junior year occurs in the fall may elect instead to take the qualifying examination at the beginning of that semester.) If a student is accepted to the Honors Program, they will finalize a topic in consultation with Mathematics faculty. After intensive study of this topic, the candidate will write a report in the form of a thesis which should be original in its presentation of material, if not in content. In addition, the candidate will report to the departmental colloquium on their thesis work during the senior year. Honors candidates are also required to complete MATH 345 and at least one Mathematics course numbered 400 to 489.

**Statistics**

*Major Program.* The minimum requirements for the Statistics major include MATH 111, and 121; STAT 111 or STAT 135 (STAT 135 strongly recommended); STAT 230, 231, 360, 370, and 495; two courses in Computer Science at the level of 111 or higher (typically COSC 111 and COSC 112); and two additional elective courses in Statistics at the 200 level or higher (one elective course in Statistics at the 200 level or higher is required for the class of 2021 and 2021E). Statistics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the statistics major: STAT 111/135, 230, 231, 360, 370, or 495 (exceptions by petition to the department).

*Double Majors in Statistics and Mathematics.* Students electing a double major in Statistics and Mathematics may count MATH 111 and 121 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Mathematics major may be counted towards the Statistics major.

*Comprehensive Evaluation*. All Statistics majors will enroll in the capstone course STAT 495 (Advanced Data Analysis). Successful completion of this course satisfies the comprehensive evaluation in Statistics for the class of 2021, 2021E, and 2022.

*Honors Program in Statistics*. For a degree with Honors, a student must have demonstrated the ability to pursue independent work fruitfully and exhibit a strong motivation to engage in research. To apply to the Honors Program, students must have an average grade of B+ or higher in Statistics 230, 231, 360, and 370. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a thesis proposal, which must be accepted by the department. More information about the Honors Program can be found on the Department website.

### Mathematics

#### 102 Geometry and Relativity

The course is designed for students who do not intend to major in mathematics or physics. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Jagannathan.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 105 Calculus with Algebra

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 106 Calculus with Elementary Functions

Requisite: MATH 105. Spring semester. Professor D. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 111 Introduction to the Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 121 Intermediate Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 140 Mathematical Modeling

Limited to 24 students. Spring semester. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2012, Fall 2014, Spring 2016, Fall 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 142 Mathematical Modeling with Environmental Applications

Limited to 24 students. This course and Math 140 cannot both be counted towards the Mathematics major. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 150 Voting and Elections: A Mathematical Perspective

Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 211 Multivariable Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 220 Mathematical Reasoning and Proof

Limited to 25 students. Spring and fall semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Fractal Geometry

Requisite: MATH 211 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 35 students. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 250 Number Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2010, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 252 Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 255 Geometry

*Elements*. In this book, Euclid deduced the theorems of geometry from a small number of simple axioms about points, lines, and circles. Among his axioms is the parallel axiom, which asserts that if we are given a line and a point not on the line, then there is a unique line through the given point that is parallel to the given line.

Requisite: MATH 121. Spring semester. Professor Contreras.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2011, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020, Spring 2022

#### 260 Differential Equations

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2023

#### 271 Linear Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 272 Linear Algebra with Applications

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022, Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2022, Fall 2023, Spring 2024

#### 275 A Second Course in Linear Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 280 Graph Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 281 Combinatorics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Fall 2021

#### 284 Numerical Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2021

#### 294 Optimization

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017

#### 310 Introduction to the Theory of Partitions

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2021

#### 320 Wavelet and Fourier Analysis

Requisite: MATH 211 and 271 or 272. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2009, Fall 2011, Fall 2013, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2019

#### 333 The Structure of Networks

Requisite: MATH 271 or MATH 272 or instructor's permission. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 345 Functions of a Complex Variable

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 350 Groups, Rings, and Fields

Limited to 25 students. Fall semester: Professor R. Benedetto. Spring semester: Professor Daniels.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 355 Introduction to Analysis

Limited to 25 students. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 365 Stochastic Processes

Requisite: MATH 360 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Spring 2022

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 372 Real Analysis in Higher Dimensions

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 385 Mathematical Logic

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 390, 490 Special Topics

Independent reading course.

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 410 Galois Theory

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2013, Spring 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2019

#### 415 Introduction to Commutative Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2021

#### 420 The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 450 Measure Theory and Integration

Requisite: MATH 355. Professor R. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 455 Topology

Requisite: MATH 355. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 460 Analytic Number Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2018, Fall 2020

#### 498, 499 Senior Departmental Honors

Open to seniors with the consent of the Department. Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

### Statistics

#### 108 Statistical Ethics and Institutions

Limited to 30 students. Visiting Scholar Andreas Georgiou.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2021

#### 111 Introduction to Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Nonparametric Statistics

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135. Limited to 24 students. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 230 Intermediate Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2012, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 231 Data Science

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 240 Multivariate Data Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2019, Fall 2020

#### 320 Statistics Communication

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 340 Epidemiology and Causal Inference

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 375 Statistical Aspects of Competition

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 231. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 456 Generalized Linear Models and Mixed Models

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 360. Limited to 20 students. Spring semester. Professor Bailey.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 490 Special Topics

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 495 Advanced Data Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 498, 499 Senior Honors

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

### Five College Programs & Certificates

#### Five College Programs & Certificates

Back- Five College Courses
- Five College Certificate Programs
- African Studies Certificate
- Asian Pacific American Studies Certificate
- Biomathematics
- Buddhist Studies Certificate
- Coastal and Marine Sciences Certificate
- Culture Health Science Certificate
- Ethnomusicology Certificate
- International Relations Certificate
- Latin American Caribbean Latino Studies Certificate
- Logic Certificate
- Middle Eastern Studies Certificate
- Native American and Indigenous Studies Certificate
- Queer and Sexuality Studies Certificate
- Reproductive Health, Rights and Justice Certificate
- Russian East European Eurasian Studies Certificate
- Sustainability Studies Certificate

## Mathematics and Statistics

**Mathematics**

*Major Program*. Mathematics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the mathematics major: MATH 111, 121, 211, 271/2, 350, or 355 (exceptions by petition to the department). Along with the required courses, a major must complete three elective courses in Mathematics numbered 135 or higher. For majors declared after May 17, 2017, at least two of these electives must be numbered 200 or higher. In addition, a major must complete two other courses, each of which is either an elective course in Mathematics numbered between 135 and 490 or a course from outside Mathematics, but in a related field, chosen from among COSC 201 or 211, 301 or 311, and 401; ECON 300, 301, 361, and 420; PHIL 350; any Physics course numbered 116 or higher (excluding PHYS 227); any Astronomy course numbered 226 or higher; and any Statistics course numbered 200 or higher. Statistics courses cross-listed with Mathematics count as Mathematics electives. The additional requirement of two courses can be satisfied by taking two math electives, one math elective and one related-fields course, or two related-fields courses. Requests for alternative courses must be approved in writing by the chair of the Department in consultation with the Mathematics faculty within the Department. Honors students may petition the department to count one math thesis course as an elective toward the major.

*Double Majors in Mathematics and Statistics. *Students electing a double major in Mathematics and Statistics may count MATH 111, 121, 211, and MATH 271 or 272 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Statistics major may be counted towards the Mathematics major.

*Comprehensive Examination*. A comprehensive examination will be given near the beginning of the spring semester of the senior year. (Those who will complete their studies in the fall semester may elect instead to take the comprehensive examination at the beginning of that semester.) The examination covers MATH 211, MATH 271 or 272, and a choice of MATH 350 or 355. More information about the comprehensive examination, including regulations and study materials, can be found on the Department website.

*Honors Program in Mathematics*. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a qualifying examination given at the beginning of the spring semester of their junior year and the acceptance of a thesis proposal. (Those for whom the second semester of the junior year occurs in the fall may elect instead to take the qualifying examination at the beginning of that semester.) If a student is accepted to the Honors Program, they will finalize a topic in consultation with Mathematics faculty. After intensive study of this topic, the candidate will write a report in the form of a thesis which should be original in its presentation of material, if not in content. In addition, the candidate will report to the departmental colloquium on their thesis work during the senior year. Honors candidates are also required to complete MATH 345 and at least one Mathematics course numbered 400 to 489.

**Statistics**

*Major Program.* The minimum requirements for the Statistics major include MATH 111, and 121; STAT 111 or STAT 135 (STAT 135 strongly recommended); STAT 230, 231, 360, 370, and 495; two courses in Computer Science at the level of 111 or higher (typically COSC 111 and COSC 112); and two additional elective courses in Statistics at the 200 level or higher (one elective course in Statistics at the 200 level or higher is required for the class of 2021 and 2021E). Statistics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the statistics major: STAT 111/135, 230, 231, 360, 370, or 495 (exceptions by petition to the department).

*Double Majors in Statistics and Mathematics.* Students electing a double major in Statistics and Mathematics may count MATH 111 and 121 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Mathematics major may be counted towards the Statistics major.

*Comprehensive Evaluation*. All Statistics majors will enroll in the capstone course STAT 495 (Advanced Data Analysis). Successful completion of this course satisfies the comprehensive evaluation in Statistics for the class of 2021, 2021E, and 2022.

*Honors Program in Statistics*. For a degree with Honors, a student must have demonstrated the ability to pursue independent work fruitfully and exhibit a strong motivation to engage in research. To apply to the Honors Program, students must have an average grade of B+ or higher in Statistics 230, 231, 360, and 370. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a thesis proposal, which must be accepted by the department. More information about the Honors Program can be found on the Department website.

### Mathematics

#### 102 Geometry and Relativity

The course is designed for students who do not intend to major in mathematics or physics. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Jagannathan.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 105 Calculus with Algebra

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 106 Calculus with Elementary Functions

Requisite: MATH 105. Spring semester. Professor D. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 111 Introduction to the Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 121 Intermediate Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 140 Mathematical Modeling

Limited to 24 students. Spring semester. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2012, Fall 2014, Spring 2016, Fall 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 142 Mathematical Modeling with Environmental Applications

Limited to 24 students. This course and Math 140 cannot both be counted towards the Mathematics major. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 150 Voting and Elections: A Mathematical Perspective

Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 211 Multivariable Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 220 Mathematical Reasoning and Proof

Limited to 25 students. Spring and fall semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Fractal Geometry

Requisite: MATH 211 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 35 students. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 250 Number Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2010, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 252 Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 255 Geometry

*Elements*. In this book, Euclid deduced the theorems of geometry from a small number of simple axioms about points, lines, and circles. Among his axioms is the parallel axiom, which asserts that if we are given a line and a point not on the line, then there is a unique line through the given point that is parallel to the given line.

Requisite: MATH 121. Spring semester. Professor Contreras.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2011, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020, Spring 2022

#### 260 Differential Equations

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2023

#### 271 Linear Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 272 Linear Algebra with Applications

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022, Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2022, Fall 2023, Spring 2024

#### 275 A Second Course in Linear Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 280 Graph Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 281 Combinatorics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Fall 2021

#### 284 Numerical Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2021

#### 294 Optimization

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017

#### 310 Introduction to the Theory of Partitions

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2021

#### 320 Wavelet and Fourier Analysis

Requisite: MATH 211 and 271 or 272. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2009, Fall 2011, Fall 2013, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2019

#### 333 The Structure of Networks

Requisite: MATH 271 or MATH 272 or instructor's permission. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 345 Functions of a Complex Variable

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 350 Groups, Rings, and Fields

Limited to 25 students. Fall semester: Professor R. Benedetto. Spring semester: Professor Daniels.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 355 Introduction to Analysis

Limited to 25 students. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 365 Stochastic Processes

Requisite: MATH 360 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Spring 2022

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 372 Real Analysis in Higher Dimensions

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 385 Mathematical Logic

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 390, 490 Special Topics

Independent reading course.

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 410 Galois Theory

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2013, Spring 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2019

#### 415 Introduction to Commutative Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2021

#### 420 The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 450 Measure Theory and Integration

Requisite: MATH 355. Professor R. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 455 Topology

Requisite: MATH 355. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 460 Analytic Number Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2018, Fall 2020

#### 498, 499 Senior Departmental Honors

Open to seniors with the consent of the Department. Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

### Statistics

#### 108 Statistical Ethics and Institutions

Limited to 30 students. Visiting Scholar Andreas Georgiou.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2021

#### 111 Introduction to Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Nonparametric Statistics

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135. Limited to 24 students. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 230 Intermediate Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2012, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 231 Data Science

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 240 Multivariate Data Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2019, Fall 2020

#### 320 Statistics Communication

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 340 Epidemiology and Causal Inference

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 375 Statistical Aspects of Competition

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 231. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 456 Generalized Linear Models and Mixed Models

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 360. Limited to 20 students. Spring semester. Professor Bailey.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 490 Special Topics

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 495 Advanced Data Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 498, 499 Senior Honors

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

### Honors & Fellowships

#### Honors & Fellowships

Back## Mathematics and Statistics

**Mathematics**

*Major Program*. Mathematics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the mathematics major: MATH 111, 121, 211, 271/2, 350, or 355 (exceptions by petition to the department). Along with the required courses, a major must complete three elective courses in Mathematics numbered 135 or higher. For majors declared after May 17, 2017, at least two of these electives must be numbered 200 or higher. In addition, a major must complete two other courses, each of which is either an elective course in Mathematics numbered between 135 and 490 or a course from outside Mathematics, but in a related field, chosen from among COSC 201 or 211, 301 or 311, and 401; ECON 300, 301, 361, and 420; PHIL 350; any Physics course numbered 116 or higher (excluding PHYS 227); any Astronomy course numbered 226 or higher; and any Statistics course numbered 200 or higher. Statistics courses cross-listed with Mathematics count as Mathematics electives. The additional requirement of two courses can be satisfied by taking two math electives, one math elective and one related-fields course, or two related-fields courses. Requests for alternative courses must be approved in writing by the chair of the Department in consultation with the Mathematics faculty within the Department. Honors students may petition the department to count one math thesis course as an elective toward the major.

*Double Majors in Mathematics and Statistics. *Students electing a double major in Mathematics and Statistics may count MATH 111, 121, 211, and MATH 271 or 272 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Statistics major may be counted towards the Mathematics major.

*Comprehensive Examination*. A comprehensive examination will be given near the beginning of the spring semester of the senior year. (Those who will complete their studies in the fall semester may elect instead to take the comprehensive examination at the beginning of that semester.) The examination covers MATH 211, MATH 271 or 272, and a choice of MATH 350 or 355. More information about the comprehensive examination, including regulations and study materials, can be found on the Department website.

*Honors Program in Mathematics*. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a qualifying examination given at the beginning of the spring semester of their junior year and the acceptance of a thesis proposal. (Those for whom the second semester of the junior year occurs in the fall may elect instead to take the qualifying examination at the beginning of that semester.) If a student is accepted to the Honors Program, they will finalize a topic in consultation with Mathematics faculty. After intensive study of this topic, the candidate will write a report in the form of a thesis which should be original in its presentation of material, if not in content. In addition, the candidate will report to the departmental colloquium on their thesis work during the senior year. Honors candidates are also required to complete MATH 345 and at least one Mathematics course numbered 400 to 489.

**Statistics**

*Major Program.* The minimum requirements for the Statistics major include MATH 111, and 121; STAT 111 or STAT 135 (STAT 135 strongly recommended); STAT 230, 231, 360, 370, and 495; two courses in Computer Science at the level of 111 or higher (typically COSC 111 and COSC 112); and two additional elective courses in Statistics at the 200 level or higher (one elective course in Statistics at the 200 level or higher is required for the class of 2021 and 2021E). Statistics majors may not apply a Pass grade from an FGO or pass/fail option to any of the core courses required for the statistics major: STAT 111/135, 230, 231, 360, 370, or 495 (exceptions by petition to the department).

*Double Majors in Statistics and Mathematics.* Students electing a double major in Statistics and Mathematics may count MATH 111 and 121 towards both majors. A maximum of one additional course taken to complete the Mathematics major may be counted towards the Statistics major.

*Comprehensive Evaluation*. All Statistics majors will enroll in the capstone course STAT 495 (Advanced Data Analysis). Successful completion of this course satisfies the comprehensive evaluation in Statistics for the class of 2021, 2021E, and 2022.

*Honors Program in Statistics*. For a degree with Honors, a student must have demonstrated the ability to pursue independent work fruitfully and exhibit a strong motivation to engage in research. To apply to the Honors Program, students must have an average grade of B+ or higher in Statistics 230, 231, 360, and 370. Students are admitted to the Honors Program on the basis of a thesis proposal, which must be accepted by the department. More information about the Honors Program can be found on the Department website.

### Mathematics

#### 102 Geometry and Relativity

The course is designed for students who do not intend to major in mathematics or physics. Omitted 2021-22. Professor Jagannathan.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 105 Calculus with Algebra

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 106 Calculus with Elementary Functions

Requisite: MATH 105. Spring semester. Professor D. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 111 Introduction to the Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 121 Intermediate Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 140 Mathematical Modeling

Limited to 24 students. Spring semester. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2012, Fall 2014, Spring 2016, Fall 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 142 Mathematical Modeling with Environmental Applications

Limited to 24 students. This course and Math 140 cannot both be counted towards the Mathematics major. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 150 Voting and Elections: A Mathematical Perspective

Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 211 Multivariable Calculus

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 220 Mathematical Reasoning and Proof

Limited to 25 students. Spring and fall semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Fractal Geometry

Requisite: MATH 211 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 35 students. Professor Folsom.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 250 Number Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2010, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 252 Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 255 Geometry

*Elements*. In this book, Euclid deduced the theorems of geometry from a small number of simple axioms about points, lines, and circles. Among his axioms is the parallel axiom, which asserts that if we are given a line and a point not on the line, then there is a unique line through the given point that is parallel to the given line.

Requisite: MATH 121. Spring semester. Professor Contreras.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2011, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020, Spring 2022

#### 260 Differential Equations

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2023

#### 271 Linear Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 272 Linear Algebra with Applications

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022, Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Spring 2008, Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022, Fall 2022, Fall 2023, Spring 2024

#### 275 A Second Course in Linear Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 280 Graph Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022

#### 281 Combinatorics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Fall 2021

#### 284 Numerical Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2021

#### 294 Optimization

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017

#### 310 Introduction to the Theory of Partitions

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2021

#### 320 Wavelet and Fourier Analysis

Requisite: MATH 211 and 271 or 272. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2009, Fall 2011, Fall 2013, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2019

#### 333 The Structure of Networks

Requisite: MATH 271 or MATH 272 or instructor's permission. Limited to 24 students. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 345 Functions of a Complex Variable

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2007, Fall 2008, Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 350 Groups, Rings, and Fields

Limited to 25 students. Fall semester: Professor R. Benedetto. Spring semester: Professor Daniels.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 355 Introduction to Analysis

Limited to 25 students. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2016, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

#### 365 Stochastic Processes

Requisite: MATH 360 or consent of the instructor. Limited to 24 students. Professor Leise.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2016, Spring 2018, Spring 2022

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 372 Real Analysis in Higher Dimensions

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 385 Mathematical Logic

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2010, Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2022, Spring 2024

#### 390, 490 Special Topics

Independent reading course.

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 410 Galois Theory

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2013, Spring 2016, Fall 2018, Fall 2019

#### 415 Introduction to Commutative Algebra

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2021

#### 420 The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

Requisite: MATH 350 or consent of the instructor. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021

#### 450 Measure Theory and Integration

Requisite: MATH 355. Professor R. Benedetto.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2010, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 455 Topology

Requisite: MATH 355. Omitted 2021-22.

**2022-23:**Offered in Spring 2023

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2011, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2017, Spring 2019, Spring 2021

#### 460 Analytic Number Theory

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2018, Fall 2020

#### 498, 499 Senior Departmental Honors

Open to seniors with the consent of the Department. Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Offered in Fall 2022

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2009, Fall 2010, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021, Fall 2022, Fall 2023

### Statistics

#### 108 Statistical Ethics and Institutions

Limited to 30 students. Visiting Scholar Andreas Georgiou.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2021

#### 111 Introduction to Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, Fall 2011, Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 135 Introduction to Statistics via Modeling

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, January 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 225 Nonparametric Statistics

Requisite: STAT 111 or STAT 135. Limited to 24 students. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2015, Spring 2018, Spring 2020, Spring 2022

#### 230 Intermediate Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2008, Spring 2012, Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 231 Data Science

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 240 Multivariate Data Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Spring 2019, Fall 2020

#### 320 Statistics Communication

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2020

#### 340 Epidemiology and Causal Inference

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2020

#### 360 Probability

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2008, Fall 2011, Fall 2012, Fall 2013, Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 370 Theoretical Statistics

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2009, Spring 2013, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 375 Statistical Aspects of Competition

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 231. Limited to 24 students. Fall semester. Professor McShane.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Fall 2021

#### 456 Generalized Linear Models and Mixed Models

Requisite: STAT 230 and STAT 360. Limited to 20 students. Spring semester. Professor Bailey.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Spring 2021, Spring 2022

#### 490 Special Topics

Fall and spring semesters. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017, Spring 2018, Fall 2018, Spring 2019, Fall 2019, Spring 2020, Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, Spring 2022

#### 495 Advanced Data Analysis

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021

#### 498, 499 Senior Honors

Fall semester. The Department.

**2022-23:**Not offered

**Other years:**Offered in Fall 2014, Fall 2015, Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2018, Fall 2019, Fall 2020, Fall 2021